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>i<- — ^ ^1 . 










CLASS or 1882 ! AM 191 







VOX.. IF. 
C K XT S TJlC E a. M O I- L. it S C A. . 

O MARS,0 LIT TITS, verum fecretumque 
^yfCtiOv/qoRin multa iuveiiitu . qiuun multa 
dictatis / 

L O K D O K, 

Printed for Benj /VMiite. 
MI) C CI^XTSni . 

F 53^0jT.20 


lilf T OF 























I WISH it had been in my pow'er to have given a per- 
fedt conclufion to the Zoology. of our country: but 
my fmall acquaintance with Insects, and the fourth divi- 
fion of the Vlth clafs, Litbopbyta and Zoopbyta^ forbad 
me to meddle with them. The Public has little reafon to 
regret this omiflion, fince the universal genius John Rein- 
hold FoRSTER, has hinted ♦ adefign of undertaking the 
firft; and my late worthy friend Mr. Ellis, (whom 
LiNNiEus fo juftly ftiles LynceusJ has in a great meafure 
executed the laft. 

In my arrangement of the prefent work, I have taken 
^the liberty of m&ing a diftindl clafs of the Crustacbous 
Animals ; and feparated them from Insects, among 
^ich they are ufually placed. 

* Catalogue of Britiib laieds. a» 

a a I HAVS 


1 HAVE paid implicit refpcft to the Snvedijh Natura- 
LiSTy in niyclafling of the Vermes and Shells* I have 
on another occafion *, given my fentiments of that won- 
derful man, (after Ray) the greateft illuminator of the 
ftudy of Nature. I have borrowed from him the Latin 
trivial names; fometunes given tranflations of them; fome- 
times given other Englijh names, when I thought them 
more apt. 

Gratitude prompts me to mention a moft irreparable 
lofs in my amiable friend Benjamin Stillingfleet, 
Efquire,. in whom were joined the beflr beast and the 
ab]eA head. Benevolence and innocence were his infepa- 
xable companions. Retirement his choice, from the moft 
afiedionate of motives %. How great, yet how unnecef- 
fary was his diffidence in public ! How ample, his inftruc- 
tion in private ! How clear his information ! How delicate 
the conveyance ! The pupil received advantage, edified by 
the humility of this maftei:. Thoroughly imbued in Divine 
Philofophy, he had an uncommon infight into the^ufes of 
every objeA of Natural Hiftory ; and gavefandlion to thofe 
ftudies, . which by . trivial obfervcr^ were held moft con- 
temptible. The end of his labors was the good op 
mankind. He attempted tp deftroy the falfc (hame that 
attended the devotee to Ornithology, the chace of the 

• Synopjis of Quadrupeds, Prefaqe vii.. 
% Mr. G&ay's Letters, 288. 


Infedt, the fearch after the Cockle, or the poring over the 

<5rafs. Me proved every fubjedl to be of the greateft fer- 

•vice to '<he M^orld, fby the proper remarks that might be 

-made on them. The traveller, the failor, the hulband- 

•man might, if they pleafed, draw the moft ufeful conclu- 

fions from them. The reader may receive the proof from 

his tfanflttlionsof various eflays, the produdlions of the 

Li'NN^AN fdhool; his own Calendar of Flora, and 

Obfervations on Gr asses. 'How much to be lamented is 

this fhort catalogue of the works of ib great, fogood a man ! 

^ I fpeak hot of bis ££Bxy oniMufiq, as .foreign to the fubjed:. 

Some of his remarks appear in my Bntt/h Zoology. He 

thought me foiar dcferving of his encouragement, as to 

dedicate part of his time to farther a^s of friend(hip. I 

received the unfinifhed tokens of his regard by virtue of 

his promifej the only papers that were refcued from the 

flames, to which his mod^fty had devoted all the reft. 

Defended by fo great an example, (howfoever un- 
equally I may follow it) there is hardly any need for an 
apology for the fubjeft of the following fheets. But if 
any fliould require one, I take the liberty of delivering it 
in the words of my ever regretted friend : 

' From a partial confideration of things, vre are very 

* apt to criticife what vrc ought to admire; to look upon 

* as ufelefs what perhaps we ihould own to be of infinite 

* advantage to us, did "we fee a little &rtber; to be peeviih 

* where we ought to give thanks ; and at the fame time to 

6 ' ridicule 


• ridicule thofcj who employ their time and thoughts ki 

* examining what we were, i. e. fome of us moft afluredly 
' were, created and appointed to ftudy. In (hort, we are 
^ too apt to treat the Almighty worfe than a rational man 
*. would treat a good mechanic ; whofe works he would 
' either thoroughly examine, or be afliamed to find any 

• fault with them. This is the efFed of a partial confide- 

* ration of Nature ; but he who has candour of mind and 
< leifure to look farther^ will be inclined to cry out : 

^ How wond'rous is this fcene ! where all is form'd 

* With namber, weight, and meafare ! all defign'd 
^ For fome ^eat end ! where not alone the plant 

*■ 0( (lately growth ; the herb of glorioas hoe, 

' Or food-full fubflance ; not the laboring fteed, 

* The herd> and flock that feed us ; not the mine 
' That yields us ftores for elegance, and ufe ; 

' The Tea that loads our table, and conveys 
' The wanderer man from clime to clime, with all 
' *^ Thofe rollbg fj^ieres, that from on high flied dowA 
*- Their kindly influence ; not thefe alone,. 

* Which flrike ev*n eyes incurious, but each mois,. 

* Each fliell, each crawling infe6l holds a rank 
' Important in the plan of Him, who fram'd 

*■ Thu fcale of beings $ holds a rank, which loft 
^ Won'd break the chain, and leave behind a gap 

* Which Nature's fclf wodd rue. Almighty Beings 
** Caufe and fupport of all things, can I view 

* Thefe objedsof my wonder; can I feel 

' Thefe fine fenfations, and not think of thee K 

* Thou who doft thro' th' eternal round of time y 

* Dofl thro' th' immenfity of fpace exift 
*■ Alone, (halt thou alone excluded be 

S * From 



' From this thy univerfe ? Shall feeble man 
' Think it beneath hii proud philofophy 
' To call foe thy affiflance, and pretend 

* To frame a world, who cannot frame a clod ?— — - 

* Not to know thee, is not to know ourfclves— — 
' Is to know nothing — nothing worth the care 

* Of man's exalted fpirit-— all becomes 

* Without thy ray divine, one dreary gloom ; 

* Where lurk the monfters of phantaftic brains, 

* Order bereft of thought, uncaus'd effeds, 

* Fate freely ading, and unerring Chance. 
' Where meanlefs •matter to a chaos finks 

* Or ibmething lower ftill, for without thee 
^ It crumbles into atoms void of force, 

' Void of refinance— it eludes our thought. 

' Where laws eternal to the varying code 

' Of felf-love dwindle. Int^reft, pafiion, whim 

' Take place of right, and wrong, the golden chain 

' Of beings melts away, and the mind's eye 

* Sees nothing but the prefent. All beyond 
' Is vifioaary gne(s«*is dream^ii death,* 



O F 







1. Pea. 

2. Minute. 

3. Long-horned. 

4. Broad-foot. 


5. Common. 

6. Cleanfer. 


7. Black-clawed 


8. Velvet. 
A. 6. 


Plate V. 


Plate V. N* 9. Wrinkled. 
10. Angular. 

VI. . M. Briftly. 

• ii. Great-clawed: • • - - 

VII. 13. Lx)ng-clawed M. and F. 

VIII; • H. Horrid. 

15. Four.£»rk(D;). 

IX. 16. Spider. 

1 7. Slender-legged. 

A^.i8. 'V^vqiouth.^ .^ ^^^ 

2e. Rough. 



,'J U d A 1' .5 »< ij D .Y i.-AiD 


a I. Vulgar. 


.€ «»• ASpigyo .! :-,.^ 


24. Norway. 

32. Atom. 


25. Long>clawed. ^ 


26. Plated. ' -^ • 


27. Craw-filh. ' ^ 

30. Shrifinp. . - 


a«. Prawri: 

31. Linear. ' , 


38. : Hermit. ' " ~'^ 




• ONrsCI^ - &ci « 

PtATi XVIII. Nv I, p.J»forsw 

j^. . r Linearis. 

^ * ... 4* Occaqicus. j; 

... 5? . Entpnjon, 
6. jOcftrum* 
.1 1. . . 7« Phaiangium Balaywc. ^ 

ScoLOPENDRA Marina. iV#. 

Class VI. WORMS. 

Div. I.. I N T. E 5 T l^ N J^. 

Plate XIX. N* 6. Greater D*w.worm; 

6.A. 'Leffer Drw-woRM. 
**' •' 7. LUCWORM. 
XX. ''S. Marine Hair-worm. 

10. Naked 'TixBE- WORM. 
•"13. Geometrical LeecA, from Roe/el*$ 
1:4.- Tuberculated LeeoiI. 
»^' i 15, Glutinous Hag. 

b 2 Dir: 


Djv. II. S O F T. 

Plate XXI. 

N* 21. 

Depilatory Laplvsia, 


Warty Doris. 



Lemon Doris. 



Aculcated Aphroditjj. 


Scaled Aph, 


Ruftic AsciDiA. 



Pedunculated Aphrodita, 


Annulated Aph. 


Minute Aph. 


Amber Doris. 



Blue NsREis. 


^Icd N. 





Five-rowed Holothvria. 



Great Cuttle. 



Eight-armed C. 



Middle C. 


Small C. 



Dotted AsTBRiAS. 




59.A. Flat AsT. 



Beaded Ast. 


Lizard Ast. 



Ten-rayed Ast. 



Pl,A*E XXXIV. N* 74. Eatable Echinus. 

75. Cordatcd Ech. 
XXXV. 76. Oval Ech. 

CiAis VI. Div. III. SHELLS. 


Plate XXXVI. N' i. Hairy Chiton. 

2. Marinated Ch. 

3. Smooth Ch. 
XXXVII. 4. Common Acorn. 

5. Sulcated A. 

6, Cornifh A. 
XXXVIII. 7- Striated A. 

9. Anatiierous A.' 

XXXIX. 10. DadylePHOLAS. 

II. White Ph. 

XL. 12. Curled Ph. 

13. Little Ph. 




14. Abrupt My AS? 
16, Sand M. 


Plate XLIII. 

N* 17. 







y XLvu 

.' a 




' *5- 






■ 28. 

























Painter's Myas.- 

Pearl M. 

Dubious . . 

Pod Razor.' 

Scymcter R. 

Sheath Ht 

Pellucid R. 

Sub-oval R. 

Kidney R. : "" 

Fragile Tellihe. 

DepreflcdT. . . 
Carnation T. 

Flat T. 
Plain T. 
Hayed T. 
FleJh-coloured T. 
Horny T. 

Aculeated Cockle. * 
Fringed C. 
Smooth C. ■ 
43.A. Strong Mactra. , 
Simpleton's 'M. 
Strong M. 
Large M. 
Teilow DoitAx.*^ 

,Comipercial Venus. 
Sicilian V. 
49, A.* ' Antiquated ^V. 

••- 1 




r K,: 



LV. N* 51. Waved Venus, 
5 1. A. Indented V. 
50,' , Wrinkled V- 
Antiquated V. 
Oval V. 

Lettered V. " " 
Fading V. 

Rugged Tellinb. Vidt p; 
, Orbicular Arca. ^ , . , 
Bearded A. ' ' ' 

Great Scallop. , ^ 

LelferSc^ ' '' - 
Red Sc. 

. 64, Vancgatcd Sc. • 

* [65. Writhed 'Sc. 

Larger Anomia, "this adheres to 
. the CommonOYSTER, N'69. 
Ri)g^d MvssEL. . 
Edible M. ' 

Pellucid M. 
IncurvatcdM. " 
76: a: Short 'M.' 
76. Umbilicated M. . 
Great M. 

DuckM.' * •' 

Brittle Nacre. 








,t.:. . : 














, 75- 




••• TUR- 



Plate LXX. 

N* 82. 

Common Gowrie. 


Wood Dipper, 


Cylindric D. 

85.A. Open D. 



Oval Volute. 





Bcown Whelk. 


Mafly W. 


Reticulated W. 



Waved W. 



Striated W. 



Corvorant's foot Strombus. 



Urchin Mvrex. 


Horny M. 



Angulated M. Engraven alfo in 
the Fronti^iece. 








Buccina and Murices. 


Minute Buccinum. 



Livid Top. 

J 04. 

Cornule T. 


Umbilical T. 


Tuberculated T. 


Land ' 




rB LXXXr. 

N' 1 09. Perriwinkle Wreath. 

II I. Barred Wr* 

r 1 1. A. Variety of the fame. 

112. Doubled Wr. 

113. Auger Wr. 

1 1 7. Bident. 


1 10, Tumid W». 

* III. Studded Wr. 

116. Revcrfe Wr. 

118*. MofsWR. 

119. Fafciated Wr.- 


121. Rock Snail.. 

123, Flats. 

124, Whirls. 

125. Dwarfs. 

126. ' Horny S. 


128. Exotic S. 

129. Garden S. 

132. Viviparous S. 


122, Grey S. 

127. Mottled S. 

1.30. Shrub S. 

133. Zoned S. 


135. Eight-fpiftd S. 


136. Lake S. 

137. Mud S. 

138. EarS. 

139. Smoothed S. 

140. Olive S. 

c ] 



Plate LXXXVII. N* 141. Livid Nerite. 

142. River N.. 

1 43. Strand N. 
LXXXVIII. 144. Tuberculated Haliotis. 


UNIVALVE SHELLS not turbinated. 



Common Limpet. 




Striated L. 



Bonnet L. 


Inclining L. 




Smooth L. 





Common Tooth-shell.* 



Spiral Serpule. 



Intricate S. 


Twined S. 



Honey-combed Sabella. 




Coarfe S. Fide taLxKV. and 39. 


Beardlefs Ophidium. £r. Zool iiu 

In Plate. LXXIX is engraven the Buccinum decussatum 
from Weymouth. It is a young (hell. When old, the lip is re- 
volute and granulated. 

In Plate LXIV. at the bottom, are three etchings of a Mytu 
lusj from IVeymoutb : a new fpecies: 




With eight feet, or ten ; rarely fix. CJNCEJt, 

Two of the feet clawed. CRAB. 

Two eyes, remote ; for the mod: part fixed on a ftalk, moveablet 
Tail foliated, and fhort, lodged in a groove in the body. 

C. Lin. Sjft. 1039. pifi^^ 

Cr.w "^ ▼ITH rounded and fmooth thorax, entire and blunt. 
^^ With a tail of the fize of the body, which com- 
nionly is of the bulk of a pea. 
Inhabits the muflel, and unjuftly has acquired the repute of 
being poifonous. The fwelling after eating of muflek is wholly 
conRitutional ^ for one that is affected by it, hundreds remain un- 

B Crabs, 


Crabs, cither of this kind, or allied to them, the antients 
believed to have been the confentaneous inmates of the pinn^e^ and 
other bivalves ; which being too ftupid to perceive the approach 
o( their prey, were warned of ic by their vigilant friend. Ofpiam 
tells the fable prettily *. 

Ov^uxQy a\} pv^iAf, &C. 

In clouded deeps below-the Pinna hides. 
And thro* the filent paths obfcurely glides 5 
A ftupid wretch, and void of thoughtful care. 
He forms no bait, nor lays the tempting fnare. 
But the dull fluggard boafts a Crab his friend, 
Whofc bufy eyes the coming prey attend. 
One room contaitjs them, and the partners dwell 
Beneath the convex of one floping (hell ; 
Deep in the wat*ry vaft the comrades rove. 
And mutual intVeft binds their conftant love % 
That wifet friend the lucky juncture tells» 
When in the circuit of his gaping ihells 
Fifli wand'ring enters then the bearded guide 
Warns the dull mate, and pricks his tender fide \^ 
He knows the hint, nor at the treatment grieves^ . 
But hu^s th' advantage, and the pain forgives : 
His ck)fing (hells the Pinna fudden joins. 
And *twixt the prefling fides his prey confines %. 
Thus fed by mutu^ aid, the friendly pair 
Divide their gains, and all the plunder (hare. 

^ HaliiuU £^» ii* He calk tbe aab n»wf vA«|y cxfies Pimutt 


CtAssV. C R A B S| 

C. tin. Byfl* 1040. Grwtm. Z§cph. Nq. 96a. Mnttius. 

Baftir/u* /. 26. tai* iv»/. i. 2. a, MihuTb. 

Cr. with a fmooth and fomewhat fquare thorax } the edges fharp \ 
liorns (hort \ tefs than the laft. 
Inhabits ouf fliores among <^4^^. 

C. tin. $xfl. 1«40. Gronov. Z^opb. No. 968. LMgicomiu 

Baftir, ii. /. 26, /a^. iv« /. 3. 3- Lo»o- 


Cr. with a round fmooth thorax ; with large claws \ very long 
horns ; fize of the lait. 
lahabits our fhores. 

Cancer ladpes. RmtM^ ^6^* Gnnw.Z^oph. No^ gi\* ^^^ haiipts. 

Cancer latipet parvus oblongas variegatus. Phmcnf% 34. tJf^ VL\.fg. j* ., Broad- 


Cr. with a fub*cordated body ; ihort feelers ; angular claws s five 
fmall teeth on each (ide i the hind legs ovated» 

C* Lin. Syft. 1043. Baftir^ 11. tab. \u f. \. Manas. 

Faun* Suec.^ No* 2026* Gron^v. Zoopb. 955. 5. Cqmm09« 

Cr. with three notches on the front ;• five ferrated teeth on each 
fide ; claws ovated ; next joints toothed ; hind feet fubulated ; dirty 
green color ; red when boiled. 

Inhabits all our fhores ; and lurks under the A^ity or burrows 
under the fand. Is fold i and eaten by the poor of our capicaL 

B a C. Lin. 

fi R A B S, 

Class V» 

Dtpttrat&Ts C. Li/t. Syfl. 1043. No. %$• 

6. Clban* Stb. Mttf. iii. tab. xy'm.fig. g% 


Cr. with a .fub-cordated body ; thorax on each fide quinque* 
dentated ; front indented ; claws angulated ; fecond joint fpi« 
ned \ hind legs have the two laft joints ovated and ciliated« 

A. vL Variety with a tubercalated farface. Fide tab. iy# 

Inhabits generally the deeps ; feeds on dead fi(h : hence called 
the purifier or ckanfery as caufing the removal of putrid bodies. 

Pagurus, C. Lin. Syfl. 1044. GroMov. Zoopb. No. g6j. 

7. Black- Belon. aquat. 368. Rondel fife. 560. Faun. Suec.No. zozZ. Mirret^s Pinax. 


Cr. with a crenated thorax ; fmooth body ; quinque- dentated 
front ; fmooth claws with black tips ; hind feet fubulated. 

Inhabks the rocky coafts ; the mod delicious meat of any^ 
cafts its fhell between Cbrifimas and Eafter. 

The tips of the claws of this Ipccies are ufed in medicine 5 in- 
tended to abforb acidities in the ftomach and bowels. 

S. Velvet. 

Cr. with the thorax quinque-dentated ; body covered with fliorC 
brown velvet-like pilej claws covered with minute tubercles j fmall 
fpines round the top of the fecond joint; hind legs broadly ovated. 
This is among the fpecies taken notice of by Arifiotle * on account 
of the broad feet, which, he fays, aflllt them in fwimming : as 
web-feet do the water-fowl. 
Inhabits the weftern coafts of AngUfea. 

• Do Pan* Amm% lib. If, c. 8t 

Cr. with 


Class Vi C R A B S; 

Cr. with the thorax quinque-dentated ; ferrated \ body wrinkled C^nugatut. 
tranfvcrfely J claws furnifhed with a fingle fpine on the] firft and J; ^^^^^^ 
fccond joints fangs ferrated ; laft pair of legs ovated. 
Found on the ihores of SkiCj oppofite to Loch Jum* 

Cr. with a reftangular body 5 the thorax armed near the corner Angulatus: 
with two fpines; the claws very long j the upper fangs black j i^^i.^'^^"* 
Jegs (lender and Tubulated. 

Wejmoutb^ From the Portland cabinet. 

C. tin. Sjuft. 1045. Faun. Smc. No, zoigi » Hirullus, 

Cancer hirfatus. RonM* s^* ii.Bristly* 

Cr. witK a hairy thorax ; on both (ides (lightly quinque-dentated ; 
daws ovated, (lightly echinated, and hairy; feet, briftly and 
fubulated. A (mall fpecies ; of a reddi(h color. 
Found beneath (tones. 

Cr. with a tridentated front ; thorax entire ; claws of a large fizc ; Plafj-cb$Iiti 

12. Grea 


deprefled, and greatly ciliated on the out(ide 5 only three fubulated "* Greats 

legs on each fide ; body little bigger than a horfe-bean, and al- 
moft round : Antennae very long and turning back, when not in 
Inhabits the Alga on the coaft of Anglefea and the Hehrides. 

Cr. with bifurcated front; a fpine at the corner of each eye; Cajkfilammsi 
another on each fide of the thorax towards the tail ; body ovated cik^D^" 
and fmooth ; Anmna of the length of the body ; the claws above ; 

2 as 

6 CRABS. CtAssV. 

as long agfin as the body; feet fubulated. The fuppofed female; 
of the fame form ; only the cUws not half fo long. 

Inhabits the deep near Hofybead and Red-fFharf Anglefea^ 
Dredged up. 

HorriJus. Cancer. Lin. Syft. 1647. 

I4.HoRRiD. C. fpinofus. Sgh. Muf. \\u tab, xxii./. 1. Cronos. Zoopb. Nq. 976* 
fins, f roid Crabber. Fmup. Norway ii. 176. tab. /. 177. 

Cr. with a projeding bifurcated fnout, the end diverging; body 
heart-lhaped ; and wkh the claws and legs covered with long and 
very (harp fpines. A large fpecies. 

Inhabits the rocks on the eaftern coaft of Scotland. Common to 
Norway and Scotland^ as many of the marine animals and birds 
arc. . • . . 

Titra-odon^ Cr. with a quadri-furcated fnout; the two middle fpines the 
TORKt*"' longeft; thorax fpiny; body heart-fliaped and uneven; claws 
long; legsflender. 
\ Inhabits the IJle of fVtgbt. 

Atamut. Caacar* Lin* Sjfi. 1044. 

l6. Spidbr. FauMnSuic. No* zqjq^ Jonfion Exaag.tiA*^^ fg. !]• 

Cr. with a bifid fnout ; briftly thorax ; body, heart-fhaped, and 
tuberculjtted ; claws long and oblongly ovated ; legs (lender, long 
and fubulated. 

Inhabits our ihores; Often covered with a hyjfus^ as in fpeci- 
men xvi. A.. 

* Cr. with 

CiASs VJ CRABS, * f 

Cr* with a bifid fnout ; heart-(haped» fmall tuberculated body ; PbaUngium. 
long claws ; legs of a vaft length, very flqndcr, and hairy. Dii-tBc'D* 

Inhabits the depths on the coafts of Angkfea. • 

Cr, with a cordated body, rugged and bent, with a few fpines ; Dvrfimnfis. 

^ , .^ ^ ^^ . ^ ^^MOUTH* " 

much lobger than the reft. 
WejmQUtb. From the Portland cabinet. 

Cr. with a tuberous, fmooth back; fmall claws, and fhort legs ; Tulnfj'us. 
fnout nightly bifid 19.UNEVBH. 

From the fame cabinet* 

Cr« with a cordated body ; bifid fnout \ legs and flaws fhort ; Afptr. 
thofc and the body rough and fpiny. *^- ^'"''''"^ 

From the fame cabinets 


l« O B S T E R S. CtAssV; 

iSsrSi. Cylindricbody. 

Long antennae. 

Long tail. 

Gammarusl Cancer. Lin. Sjft. XO50. No. 
2 1. Vulgar. Aftacus. Rondtl. 538. 

L.TT7ITH a fmooth thorax ; fliort fcrrated fnout; very long 
VV antenna \ and between them two fhorter, bifid; claws 
and fangs, large, the greater tuberculated, the lefTer ferrated on 
the inner edges four pair of legs; fix joints in the tail; caudal 
fins rounded. 

Inhabits all the rocky fhores of our ifland ; but chiefly where 
there is a depth of water. In Llyn^ in Caernarvonjhire^ a certain 
fmall lobfter, nothing diflFerent except in fize, burrows in the 

Brought in vaft quantities from the Orkney ifles, and many parts 
of the eaftern coafl: of Scotland^ to the London markets* Sixty or 
feventy thoufand are annually brought, in well-boats, from the 
neighborhood of Montrofe alone *. 

Lobfters fear thunder ; and are apt to caft their claws on a 
great clap. I am told they will do the lame on firing a great gun 5 
and that when men of war meet a lobfter-boat, a jocular threat 
is ufed. That, if the matter does not fell them good lobfters, they 
yfiXXfalute him. 

• Toor in Scotland, 1772. part. ii./. 146. 



The habitation of this fpccics is in the clcarcft water; at the 
foot of rocks that impend .over the fea. This has given oppor* 
tunity of examining more clofely into the natural hiflory of the 
animal, than many others who live in an element that prohibits mod 
of the human refearches^ and limits the inquiries of the mod inqui- 
litive. Lobfters are found on moft of the rocky coafts of Greai 
Britain. Some are taken by '^tbe hand ; bot the greater quantity 
in pots, a fort of trap formed of twigs, and baited with garbage ; 
they are formed like a wire moufe-trap, fo that when the lobfter 
gets in, there is no return. Thefe are fattened to a cord funk 
into the fea, and their place marked by a buoy. 

They begin to breed in the fpring, and continue breeding moil 
part of the fummer. They propagate more bumano ; and are 
extremely prolific. Doftor Bafter fays he counted 12,444 eggs 
under the tail, bcfides thofe that remained in the body, unpro- 
truded. They depofit thefe eggs in the fand, where they arc 
foon hatched. • 

Lobfters change their cruft annually. Previous to their putting 
off their old one, they appear fick, languid, and reftlcfe. They 
totally acquire a new coat in a few days ; but during the time 
that they remain defcncelefs they feek fome very lonely place, for 
fear of being attacked and devoured by fuch of their brethren that 
are not in the fame weak fituation. 

It is alfo remarkable, that Lobfters and Crabs will renew their 
claws, if by accident they are tora off ; and it is certain they will 
grow again in a few weeks. 

They are very voracious animals, and feed on fca-weeds, on 
garbage, and on all forts of dead bodies. 

C AiJditional 

:jO LOBSTER S. , Class V. 

Additional to this, I beg leave to give an accurate account of 
the natural hiftory of this animal, communicated to me by the inr*^ 
gcnious Mr, TraviSj furgeon, at Scarhorougb. 

* Scarborough^ 25th 05. 1768. 
< S I R, 
* W E have vaft numbers of fine Lobfters on the rocks^ 

* near our coaft. The large ones are in general in their belt feafon 
^ from the middle of OSiober till the beginning of May, Many 
« of the fmall ones, and fome few of the larger fort arc good all 
^ the fummer. If they be four inches and a half long or upwards, 
< from the tip of the head to the end of the back fhell, they are 

* called Jizeabk Lobfters. If only four inches, they are efteemed 

* half fize ; and when fold, two of them are reckoned for one of 

* fize. If they be under four inches, they are called pawksj and 

* are not faleable to the carriers, though, in reality, they are ia 
^ the fummer months fuperior to the large ones in goodnefs. The 

* pincers of one of the lobfters large claws are furniflied with 

* knobs, and thofe of the other claw are always fcrrated. With the 

* former it keeps firm hold of the ftalks of fubmarinc plants, and 

* with the latter it cuts and minces its food very dextrouDy. The 

* knobbed or numb claw, as the Filhcrmen call it, is fomctimes 
« on the right and fometimes on the left, indifferently. It is more 

* dangerous to be feized by them with the cutting claw than the 
« other ; but in either cafe, the quickeft way to get difengaged 

* from the creature is to pluck off its claw. It feems peculiar 

* to the Lobfter and Crab, when their claws are pulled off, that 

* they will grow again, but never fo large as at firft. 

' The Female or Hen Lobfter does not caft her Ihell the fame 
^ ye^r that (he depofitsher ovai or, in the common phrafe, is in 

* berry. 


Class V. LOBSTER S; 

berry. When the ova firft appear under her tail, they are very 
fmall and extrenndy black ; but they become in fucceflion al« 
moft as large as ripe elder-berries before they be depoficed, and 
turn of a dark brown color, efpecially towards the end of the 
time of her depoliting them. They continue full and depofiting 
the ova in conftant fuccefiion, as long as any of that black fub* 
ftance can be found in their body, which, when boiled, turns of 
a beautiful red color, and is called their coraL Hen Lobfters 
are found in berry at all times of the year, but chiefly in winter. 
It is a common miftake, that a berried Hen is always in perfeftion 
for the table. When her berries appear large and brownilh, Ihc 
will always be found exhaufted, watery, and poor. Though the 
ova be caft at all times of the year, they feem only to come to 
life during the warm fummer months of July and Auguft. Great 
numbers of them may then be found, under the appearance of 
tad-poles, fwimming about the little pools left by the tides among 
the rocks, and many alfo under their proper form, from half an 
inch to four inches in length. 

« In cafting their fliells, it is hard to conceive how the Lobfter is 
able to draw the fi{h of their large claws out, leaving the fhells 
entire and attached to the fliell of their body •, in which ftate they 
are conftantly found. The filhermen fay the Lobfter pines before 
cafting, till the fifh in its large claw is no thicker than the quill of a 
goofe, which enables it to draw its parts through the joints and nar- 
row paftage near the trunk. The new'fhell is quite membraneous at 
firft, but hardens by degrees, Lobfters only grow in fize while their 
ftells are in their foft ftate. They are chofen for the table, by their 
being heavy in proportion to their fize ; and by the hardnefs of their 
fticUs on their fides, which, when in perfection, will not yield to 

C 2 * moderate 

n L O Bl S T E R S. CjlamV. 

* moderate prelTure. Barnacks and other fmall fhell-fifli adhering 
^ to them are efteemed certain marks of fuperior goodnefs. Cock- 

* ^^obfters are in general better than the Hens in winter ; they are 

* diftinguiOied by the narrownefs of their tails, and by* their having 

* a ftrong fpine upon the center of each of the tranfverfe procefles 

* beneath the tail, which fupport the four middle- plates of their 

* tails. The fifh of a Lobfter's claw is more tender, delicate, and 

< eafy of digeftion than that of the tail. Lobfters are not taken, here 
^ in pots, as is ufual where the water is deeper and more ftill than 

* it is upon our coad. Our fifhermen ufe a bag-net fixed to an iron 

* hoop^ about two feet in diameter, and fufpended by three lines 

* like a fcale. The bait is commonly fifh-guts tied to the bottom and 

* middle of the net. They can take none in the day-time, except 

< when the water is thick and opake ; they are commonly caught 
^ in the night, but even then it is not poflible to take any when 

* the fea has that luminous appearance which is fuppoied to pro- 

* ceed from the nereis noSiikca. In fummcr,$the Lobfters are found 
« near the ftiore, and thence to about fix fathoms depth of water ; 

* in winter, they are feldom taken in lefs than twelve or fifteen 

* fathoms. Like other infefts, they arc much more adtive and 

* alert in warm weather than in cold. In the water they can run 
^ nimbly upon their legs or fmall claws, and if alarmed can fpring 

* tail-foremoft, to a furprifing diftance, as fwift as a bird can fly. 

* The fifticrmen can fee them pafs about thirty feet, and by the 

* fwiftnefs of their motion, fuppofe they may go much farther. 
« AtheHiCUs remarks this circumftance, and fays, that the incurvaied. 

* Lobfters will fpring with the affivity of dolphins. Their eyes Are 

* raifed upon moveable bafcs, which enables them to fee readily 
« every way. When frightened, they will fpring from a confider- 



« able diftancc to their hold, in the rock 5 and what is not fefs fur- 

< prifing than true, will throw themfelves into their hold in that 

< manner, through an entrance barely fufiicient for their bodies to 

* pafs i is is frequendy feen by the people who endeavor to take 

* them at Filey Bridge. In frofty weather, if any happen to be 

< found near the Ihore, they are quite torpid and benumbed* A 

* fixeable Lobiler is commonly from one pound to two in weight. 

* There was one taken here this fummer which weighed above four> 

* and the filhermen fay they have feen fome which were of fix 
« pounds, but thcfe arc very rare. 

« I am, Sir, £sf^.* 

I conclude with faying, that the Lobfter was well known to the 
ancients, and that it is well defcribed by Jriji$tk^ under the name 
of Afi^ftxof * ; that it is found as far as the HeUeffont^ and is called, 
at Cimfiantinople^ f Uczuda^ and Ucbuda. 

Cancer. Lin. Syft. 1053. Homwrus. 

Locofta. la Langoufte. RowUL fife. 535. ^^* Spi nt* 

L. with a front broad, armed with two large fpines, and between 
them a fmaller, guards to the eyes, which are prominent-, Antennae 
longer than body and tail ; fpiny at their origin 5 beneath them 
two leffer ; claws fhort, fmall, fmooth -, fangs fmall, finglc, hin- 
ged ; legs flender and fmooth ; body and thorax horrid with fpines j 
tail longer than that of the common Lobfter; on each part, above, 
is a white fpot, the bottoms are crooked and ferrated 5 the tail- 
fin, partly membranaceous, partly cruftaceous. 

• Hift^ An* lib. IV. e. t. 

+ BtUnHift.Poifotts. 357. T 1 I • 




Inhabits our rocky coafts \ often taken about the promontory 
of Uyft^ and Bardfey ifle. 

The French name of this ipecies has been barbaroufly tranflated 
into the Long-cyfter. 

Jraus. ^- ^^^* ^Jfi* i^S3- ^^' 7S' Faun. Smc. No. 2040. 

as. Broad. Squillalata. RotuUl. s^S* 

L. with two broad ferratcd plates before the eyes ; fliort furcated 
antenna \ body and tail flat and broad. 

Size of the fpiny Lobfter. 

Found by Doftor Borlafe on Careg Killas^ in Mounts-Bay. U 
common to the four quarters of the world. 

Norvegicus. Cancer Nonregicus. Lin. Sjfi. 1053. 

24. Nor- Sandfiord, PoMttf. Norway, ii. 175. tai.f. 177. 


L. with a long fpiny fnout ; thorax flightly fpiny ; body marked 
with three ridges; claws very long, angular, and (along the 
angles) fpiny j antenna long ; legs flender, clawed ; tail long ; 
elegantly marked with fmooth and Ihort-haired fpaces, placed 

Common length, from tip of the claws to the end of the tail 
near nine inches. 


2g. LONO- 

Leo* RondtL 542. 

L« with a fmooth thorax, with three (harp flender fpines in front ; 
claws fix inches and a half long, flender and rough \ faogs ftraits 
legs weak, briftly ; antenna flender, two inches and a half long ; 
tail and body about five inches. 


Class V. LOBSTER S; rg. 

Taken near Bamff. Communicated to me by the Reverend^Mr. 
Cordiner^ and engraven from bis beautiful drawing*. 

Caicen lis. Sjfi. 1052* Strigofiu. 

L. with a pyramidal fpiny fnout; thorax elegantly plated % each 
plate marked near its junfkion with fhort^/^^ claws much longer 
than the* body, thicks echinated> and tuberculated y the upper 
fang trifid ; only three legs, fpiny on their fides ; tail broad. 

The largeft of this fpecies is about fix inches long. 

Inhabits the coafts of Anglefea \ under (tones and fuci. Very 
a£live. If taken, flaps its tail againft the body with much vio» 
lence and noife. 

Cancer. Lin, Sjft. 1051* AJIacut. 

27. Craw- 

L. with a projefting fnout flighdy ferratcd on the fides; afmooth '""• 
thorax; back fmooth, with two fm^U fpkies on each fide; claws 
large, befet with fmall tubercles ; two firfl pair of legs clawed ; 
the two next Tubulated ; tail confifls of five joints ; the caudal fins 

Inhabits many of the rivers of England \ lodged in holes which 
they form in the clayey banks. Cardan fays that this fpecies is a 
fign of the goodncfs of water; for in the befl water, they are boiled 
into the rcddeft color *. 

Sqailla Crangon. J^oniiL 547. Sgrraius. 

28. PHAWN* 

L. with a long ferratcd fnout bending upwards ; three pair of very 
long filiform feelers ; claws fmall, furnifhed with two fangs ; fmooth 

• (footed by PUt. Hifi, Stafford/. 185^ 

thorax ^ 


thorax ; five joints to the tail ; middle caudal fin Tubulated i two 
outmofl: flat and rounded. 

Frequent in feveral fhores, amidft loofe ftones ; fometimes found 
at fea, and taken on the furface over thirty fathoms depth of water; 
cinereous when fre(h ; of a fine red when boiled. . 

Squilla. • Cancer Sqailla. Lin. Syft^ 10$ I • Faun. Sutc. N§* 2037* 
^9. Whxtb. Sqnilla fiatava. Sth^ Muf, iii. /. 5^. tai. xzi. fig. 9. lo* 

Squilla fafca. Bafiir iL 30. /o^. ux*fig^ 5. 

Equina Gibba. RondiU 549. 

L. with a fnout like the prawn, but deeper and thinner; and feelers 
longer in proportion to the bulk; the fub-caudal fins rather larger; 
is at full growth not above half the fize of the former. 

Inhabits the coalls of Kent ; is fold in London under the name 
of the white Jhrimp^ as it afllimes that color when boiled. 

CmngdH. Cancer Crangon. LU. Sjfi. la^z. 

30.SHRIMP, Sqailla marina Batava. Ba/ier. ii. 27. uh. iiufig. 1. 1 1. 
Rit/tl infia. iii. tah. Ijciii. 

L. with long flender feelers, and between them two thin projedt- 
ing lamina \ claws with a fingle-hooked moveable fang ; three pair 
, of legs; feven joints in the tail ; the middle caudal fin fubulated ; 
the four others rounded and fringed ; a fpine on the exterior fide of 
each of the outmoft. 

Inhabits the fandy fiiores of Britain^ in vaft quantities. The 
moft delicious of the genus. 

.6 . ' Cancer 



Cancer. Li if* Syfl^ 1056. Linearis. 

LtStt garnel or Ihrimp. MarUn^s SpiiKtirg. 115. tah. P. fy. i. 31. Linear. 

L. with-^ long flender claws, placed very near the head, with a 
flender body, and fix legs on each fide -, is about half an inch long. 
Found in the iand, on the Ihorc of Flitujbirt j is very frequent 
in Spitzbergett. 

Cancer. Liu, Sjji. IC56. Atomos. 

Mirum animalculum in corallinis^ &r. Bafier^ i. 43. faLvr.fg. ii, 32. Atom. 

L. with a lender body 5 filiform antenna ; three pair of legs near 
the head j behind which arc two pair of oval veftcuU^ beyond, arc 
three pair of legs, and a flender tail between the laft pair. 

Very minute. The help of the microfcopc often neceflTary for 
its infpedbiom 

C L/Vr. %?. io5s« JVif. 81. FmUx. 

33. FliA* 

L. with five pair of legs, and two pair of claws imperfedt -, with 
* twelve joints in the body. 

Very. common in fountains and rivulets; fwims fwiftly in an 
incurvated pofture on its back -, embraces and prote(fls its young 
between the legs ; does not leap. 

L. Lin. Sjft. 10$^. No, 82. Locujla. 

Ro/tl lnj€&. iii. tab. 62* 3^. Locust. 

L. with four antenna \ two paSr of imperfe£t claws ; the firfl: joint 
ovated ; body confifts of fourteen joints, in which it differs from 
the former. 

D Abounds 

i8 LOBSTERS, Class^V. 

Abounds in fummer-timc on the Ihorcs, beneath ftones and. 
^ algie ; leapis^about with, vaft agility,. 

S^Ii»us. C^nCjPr. , Li/i. Sjfi. 1056.. 

35. S>LT. 

L. with jointed body ; hands without claws j tf»/^;i»d^ (hortcr than^ 
the body ; ten pair of legs •, tail filiform, fubulatcd ; very minute.. 
Difcovered by Dodtor Maty in. the fait pans at Limingtcn., 

StagnaUs. Cancer. Lin. Syft.'\o^6. 

36. Fond, 

L, with jointed body ; hands without claws;, a bifid tail. 

Inhabits the crannies of rocks, in freflti waters^ fufpefted byy 
Ifinnaus to be the larva of an Ephemera. 

The two laft never fell under my notice. 

Mantis. C, Lin. Sy/. 1 05 4. No. y6.. 

37. Mantis., 

L. wUh ttiort antenpiic 'y fhert thorax^ and two pinnated fubftanees^ 
on each fide; three pair of claws with hairy ends •, the bpdy long,, 
divided by eight fegments : two fins on each fide of the tail i.tail, 
conoid, with fpincs on the margin,. 

From the Portland cabinet, 


Bernardus. Cancer. Lin» Syjl.' io\g* 
38. Hermit, 

C. with rough claws ; the right claw is the longer 5 the legs fubu- 
latcd, and ferrated along the upper ridge j the tail naked and ten- 
2 der. 

Class V, LOBSTERS, 19 

der, and furnifhed with a hook, by which it fecures itfelf in its 

This fpedes is parafitic, and inhabits the empty cavities of 
turbinated (hells, changing its habitation according to its increafe 
of growth, from the fmall nerite^ to the large whelk* Nature denies 
it the*flrong covering behind, which it has bellowed on others of 
this clafs, and therefore direds it to take refuge in the deferted 
cafes of other animals. 

AriJ^otU dcfcribes it very exadkly under the name of K«(xfyioy *. 
By the moderns it is called the foldier^ from the idea of its dwelling 
in a tent ^ or the hermit^ from retiring into a cell. 

* Hift. An. lib* iv. c. 4. lib. v. r* 15. 

p 2 

( 21 ) 




Oniseus Pfora. 




Marinus. Pallas SpiciL fafc. ix, tab. iv. f. 6^ 







VIL Phalangxum Balsense. 


ScoLOPENDRA Marina*. 





dlv. l intestine. 

II. S O F T. 

( «5 ) 


E R M E S. 
W O R M S. 

SILB fiXItTIMABB DE EA. Plinii lib. Xi. C. 3* 

SLOW, foft, expanding, tenacious of life, Ibmetimes capable 
of being new formed from a part; the enliveners of wet 
pkces; without head or feet ; hermaphrodicical; to be dillinguifbed 
by their feelers* 

Not improperly called by the ancients, imperfeS animals ', being 
dcftitutc of head, ears, nofe, and feet, and for the moft part of 
eyes ; moft different from infefts; from which Linnaeus has long 
fince removed thcfe works of Nature. 

They may be divided into Intestine, Soft, Testaceous^ 
LiTHOPHYTES, and Zoophytes. 

The Intestine (heretofore ftyled fhe earthly) perforate all things 
by help of the great fimplicity of their form. The Gordius 
pierces the clay, that the water may percolate \ the Lumbricus, the 
common foil, leaft it Ihould want moifture j the Myxine, dead 

£ bodies. 

26 WORMS. Class VI. 

bodies, in order that they may fall innoxioully to pieces; the 
Teredo, wood, to promote its decay. In like manner, Pho- 
LADEs, and fome forts of muflels penetrate even rocks, to efie& 
their diflblution. 

The MoLLuscA, or Soft, are naked, furnilhcd with arms ; for 
the mod part wander through the vaft traft of ocean ; by their phof- 
phoreous quality illuminate the dark abyfs, refle&ing lights to the 
heavens ^ thus what is below correfponds with the lights above. 

Thefe Mollusc a often become the inhabitants of teftaceous 
calcareous covers, which they carry about with them, and often 
they themfelves penetrate calcareous bodies ; like infedts, are mul* 
tiplied into infinite variety : and exhibit, both in form and colors, 
fplendid examples of the excelling powers of the all-mighty 
Artificer. Nor are they without their ufes ; feveral Ipecies aflford a 
delicious and nourifhing nutriment. The healing art calls in the 
fnail in confumptive cafes ; and the (hells Calcined are of known 
efficacy in ftubborn acidities. Shells uc the great manure of land3 
in many parts of thefe kmgdoms. The pearls of Gnat Brilaim 
have been celebrated from the time of Cdfar. 








I. With a filiform body, of equal thicknefs; finooth. gordius. 


Gorditts. £/«• Sxfi. 107;. Fmh. Saic. If 9* 2068. 
Yitaloi aqaaticiii. Ge/mr jf • 

G. f\F a P?lc color, with the ends black. 

V^ Inhabits boggy places, and clay at the bottom of 

G. Un* SjJI* 1075. FmM^ Suif. if«. 2069. 

G. of an uniform yellow color. 

G. Lin. Sjf/t. I07J. 

G. filiform, twifted fpirally and lying flat. Tab. xx. fig. 3. 

E t Common 


I. Watik. 


2. ClaT. 

3* Maeiiti* 

28 WORMS. Class VI. 

Common in the intcftincs of the herring and other fea-fifli. Ariff 
totle * remarks that the Ballerns and Tillo are infefted in the dog- 
days with a worm that torments, thcnr fo much, that they rife to 
the top of the water, 'where the heat deftroys them. Bleaks are 
obferved to rife at certain feafons to the furface, and tumble about 
for a confiderable fpace, in feeming. agonies. I ftrfpeft xh^ca to be 
aflefted in the fame manner with thofc Ariftotelian fiftu 

JSCJRiS. IL Slender filiform body, attenuated at each end 

Fermicularis* Afcaris. Lin. Sjfi. 1076% 
4* Vermi- 


Asc. With faint annular rug^i thicker at one end than the 
other i mouth tranfverfe. 

Inhabits, according to Unnaus^ boggy places, and under the 
roots of decayed plants ; found in the re3u^ of children and ' 
horfes ; often obferved in the dung of the laft ^ emaciates children 
greatly ; is fometimes vomited up. 

Lumhrhoidts. Afcaris. Lin. Syji. lo'ji* 
5* Common. 

Asc. with a flender body, fubulated at each end ; but the tail 
triangular ; grows to the length of nine inches*^ viviparous \ and 
produces vaft numbers. 

Inhabits the human inteftines. 

• mfi. Jm. Ub% viii. c. Z9. 

IL Slender 

GUM VI. W O R MS;. 29 

HI. Slender annuUted body, furnilhed with t lateral pore* LUMBRICUs. 


Lumbricas. Lin» Sjft» 1076. ^ Fau/t. Smc, No, 2073. 

Rait in/tS. I. * Terrejfris. 

6. Dew. 

L. with a hundred and forty rings; head taper; mouthj at the ^' 

end, round ; fore part of the worm cylindric, the reft depreflcd ; 

at aboutone third of its length is a prominent annulatcd belt; on 

each fide of the belly a row of minute fpines, diftinguiihable only 

by the touch ; afliftant in motion. Tai. xix. fg. 6. 

A variety only of the former ; excepting in fize, refembling it. Mh^r. 
Ran tnje£l. 2. 

Inhabits the common foil, and by perforating, renders it apt to 
receive the rain ; devours the cotyledons of plants, or part of the 
feed that vegetates ; comes out at night to copulate ; is the food of 
moles, hedge-hogs, birds, &c. In Englijby the Dew or Loh- 
womu Tais xix.fg. 6. A, 

Inhabits the Icfler inteftines of the human fpecics, chiefly of Intiftinaiis* 
children i does not differ in the left from the former kinds. ^^^^ 

L. marinos. Lin. Sjft. 1077. Faun. Smc* N0. 2074. -Ar/f*. a^. 444* Mar/Mus^ 

Tw LUGr 

L. with round mouth, and circular body annulatcd with greater 
and lefler rings 5 the firft prominent ; on each of them are two 
tufts of (hort briftles placed oppofite ; the tail-part is fmooth -, 
elegant ramifications are obferved to iffue from among the tufts in 
the living worm ; is ibft and full of blood* 

6 Inhabits 

30 WORMS. Clam VI. 

Inhabits Tandy Aiores, burying idclf deep ; but its place diftin- 
guifhable by a little rifing^ with an aperture on the furface i of 
great ufe as a bait for filh. Talu xbc.Jig. j. 

FASCIOLA. IV. Flatti(h body \ a pore at the extremity, and on the belly. 

Htfatica. Fafciola. Lin. SjJL 1077. Fmun. Stuc. N$. 207$. Jauim. Jcad. 

8* Livsa. R^ffl* ^ff* tab. xxxii./* 5. B^rlaft Kgt. Hift, ConrwrnU, tab. zz. Jig* to. 

F. with an ovated body, a little (harper on the fore part^ in the 
centre b a white fpot, with a line of the fame color pafling towards 
each extremity. 

Infcfts the livers of Iheep and hares. 

Intiftinalis. Fafciola. Lin. Sjft. 1078. Faum. Smc. N»* 2076. 
9. Inte3- ' Lin. Sjft. ed. vi. 70* tab. ^uf. i. 


F. with a long Qender body, if extended; when contra&ed, of a 
fub-oval form. 

Inhabits the inteftincs of frelh*water fiih \ difcovered in ireams 
and fticUcbacks. 

IV. A 

Class VI. WORMS. 


V. A flendcr lengthened body. SIPUNCVLUS. 

Mouth, at the very end ; attenuated, cylindric, TUBE- WORM. 

Aperture on the fide of the body. 

Slpancolos. ^in. Sjft. 1078* 

Vermis macrorhynchopteras. RonM. Zooph* no* Gffiur* a§* I0lt6» Nrndau 

Syrinx. B^bal/cb. marin. 93. $ui* vii. fy* 6. 7. !•• Nak»». 

T. With a cylindric extended mouth, laciniated round the inner 
edges; body rounded, taper, at the end globofe*, about eight 
inched long ; aperture at the fide, a little below the mouth* 
Tab. vi. fig. xo. 
Inhabits the fea. 

VI. Body oblong 5 moves by dilating the head and tail, and raifing hiAvdo. 
the body into an arched form. LEECH. 

H. £». Sj^i 1079. ^**»* ^*^''* ^^' *^79* ^Mtinfia. 3. G^mr f$/c 415. Midicinalh^ 

IK MedK 

L. With a brown body, marked with fix yellow lines. 

Inhabits (landing waters. The beft of phlebotomift;^ efpecially 
in b^tmorrhoids. The praftice is as old as. the time of P/i>ry, 
who gives it the apt name of birudo fanguifuga. Leeches were 
ufed inftead of cupping-glafies for perfons of plethoric habits, 
and thofe who were troubled with the gout in the feet. He aflerts, 
that if they left their head in the wound, as fometimes happened^ 





M S. 

Class Yl. 

it was incurable ; and informs us» that MefafinHS^ a perfon of con- 
fular dignity, loft his life by fuch an accident ♦. 

Sanguifiga. H. Lin. JSjifi. FrntL Suie. Na. vyjt. 

1 2« Ho&sfi. Hinido ffiaxime apad not valgtris. Raii imfta. }• 

L. with a deprefled body % in the bottom of the mouth are certain 
great fharp tubercles or whitifli caruncles. The flendereft part is 
about the mouth \ the thickeft towards ihe tail ; the tail itfelf very 
flender ; the belly of a yellowiih green \ the back dufky. 

Inhabits ftanding waters. 

Leeches are good barometers, when preferved in glaflcs, and 
predid); bad weather by their great reftleflhefs and change of place. 

Ceomttra. H. Lin* Syft. 1080. Faun. Sugc. N»* 2083. 
i^* Gbome- R^eL* xxxiu /. i. 4* 


L. with a filiform body ; greenifh, Ipottcd with white ; both ends 
dilatable, and equally tenacidus. 

Inhabits the fame places ; moves as if meafuring like a compafs, 
whence the name ; found on trout and other fi(h, after the fpawn- 
ing fcafon. Tab. xx.fg. 13. 


Muruafa. H. Lin. Syft. 1080. Faun. Suec. No. 2080. Muf. Ad. Fr. i. 93. 
14. Tuber- Hirudo marina. RopdtU aquat, 

Hiiudopifcium. Bajien i* 82. iab. x./. 2. 

L. with a taper body ; rounded at the greater extremity, and fur- 
ni(hcd with two fmall horns ; ftrongly annulated, and tuberculated 
upon the rings ; the tail dilated. 

* Lib.xxxiu.c, I0« 


Class VI^ W O R US. 

Inhabits the fea; adheres ftrongly to filb, and leaves a bUck 
mark on the fpot. Tal^. xx« J!^. 14. 


yiL Slender body, carinated beneath. 
Mouth at the extremity, cirrated. 
The two jaws pinnated. 
An adipofe or raylefs fin round the tail, and under the belly. 



M. Lin. Sxfi, io8o. PotaoU. Fau/t. Stac. AV. 2086* 

Mb/. Ad. Ft. i. 91. iitb. viii. /• 4. 

Laoipetra caeca. WiU iQb. 107. RMtipiJc. $6f 

15. Gluti* 


^ This fpecies is amply delcribed in the definition ; is about eight 
inches long. 

Inhabits the ocean ; enters the mouths of filh, when on the 
hooks of lines that remain a tide under water,* and totally devours 
the whole, except flcin and bones. The Scarboraugb filhermen often 
take it in the robhed fijh^ on drawing up their] lines. They call 
it the hag. Linnaus attributes to it the property of turning water 
into glue. Tab. yon, fig. 15. 

I3iv. IL 

34 W O X . M S. Class Vl'J 


Animals of a fimple form, (naked) without a Shell ; furnilhed 

with members. 

^"^-K VIIL Oblong body ; attenuated towards the tail. 

Above, is a flefliy* buckler, formed convexlyi flat beneath; 
A lateral hole on the right fide, fclr its genitals, and difcharge 
of excrements. 

Jbif. L* £/ir.4je^. fo8i. Fmm* SMi€* Na* lotS* Ltfi^JnghiiU Gqfinr^aq.z^^ 

i& Black. 

Sl. wholly black. 

Rufus. L. Lin* Sjfi. io8i. Faun* Smeci Nq^ 2oS9. 

17. Brown, ii/h Jifgf. Jff* 6. tat. u. J^. u 

Su of a brownilh color. 

UiUfmuu* li* H^* Sjifi. loSl. f««r» Stuc. A#. 2090. Lifi. jfttgL Jfp^ 6. /^. u. ^. ti 

18. Grbat. Lift.dngU 127. 

St. with a cinereous ground ; the head reticulated with black a on- 
the back three pale lines and four dufky^ the laft fpotted with 

Thefe vary ; at times, part is of an amber color. The largeil: 
of the genuS) five inches long. 


M S, 


Lunax daereus parvas iamacttlatui* lifi* JngU 130* 


19. FlIlD. 

Sl. finally and of an uniform cinereous color \ are very com- 
mon in gardens, and deftrudive to plants. 

Thefe have fometimes been fwallowed by perfons in a confump- 
ttve habit, who thought them of fervice. 

L« LiM.SjJl. 1082. FwM* Sut€. N». 2092. 

Sl. of an amber color, marked with white. 

Fbmms. • 


IX. Body covered with membranes reflcAed. 
A fliield-like membrane on the back. 
A lateral pore on the right fide. 
The vent on the extremity of the back. 
Four feelers, reiembling ears. 


Lepm m&rinoi. Pliniu Hi* ix. r. 48. RtrnttL piji. 520. 
Lernaea. Bohad/cb* 3. tub* ^'fi* 
Lapljfia. Un. Sjfi. io82« 


Defcribed in the charafter. The Ipccimen engraven flicws its 
fize. Thofe of Ilaly grow4Co the length of eight inches. PJinjf 
calls it offainformiSy and placing it among the ^venomous marine 
animals, fays, that even the touch is infectious. The fmell is 
extremely naufeous. Ta^» xxufg. 21. 
Taken off Angkfea. 

F a X. Body 

y^r o R u Si Clamvi; 

'>ORIS. X. Body oblong, flat beneath; creeping. 

Mouth placed below. 
Vent behind ; furrounded with a fringe. 
Two feelers, retraftile. 

Jrgo. Doris. Z/«» Sjjt. loSj. Bobad/cb. tab* v. fy. 4« 5. 

2». Lbmon. 

D. with an oval body^ convex, marked with numerous puncr 
tures *, of a lemon color ^ the vent befet with elegant ramiflca^i 

Inhabits different parts of our feas ; called, about Brigbtbelm* 
fione^ the fia-kmon. ^ab. xxjk.Jig. 22. 

Vtrruufa. Doris. Ir/n. Bjfi^ 1083. 

D. of an ovated form, convex, tuberculated. ^ah. xxi. ;fig. %%. 
Inhabits the fea, near Aberdeen. 

Ekarin: D. with the front abrupt ; body has the appearance of a fnail ; 
a^ AMBB&. bilamcUatcd i fize of the figure; amber colored. 
Taken off Anglefea. Tab. xxiv. fg. 24. 

XI. Body 

GtASsVL W p K M S. 37 

XL Body oval ; numbers of fardculi, ferving the ufes of feet, on JPURODItJ^ 
each fide. 
Mouth cylindric, retra£tile, placed at the extremity; 
Two fetaceous feelers* 

Aph. Lin. Sj^. 1084. Faun. Smc. No. 2099. Bajlirf u. 62. tab. yI. Jig. 12, Acnltata^ 

Mm/, Ad. Fr, u 93. . 25. Acu- 

Eroca mariaa. Sgb, Muf. i. /ii^. xc. i. iii. tab. vr. f, 7. 8. lsatbd^ 
Sea moafe. Dalfs Harwich. 394. B^Mis Nat. HiJI. Inland^ i^z.. 

Aph. with the back cloathed with fhort brown fur ; the fides, with 
rich pavonaceous green hairs, mixed with Iharp fpines ; vent 
covered with two fcales ; belly covered with a naked (kin ; mouth 
placed beneath ; each foot confifts of a fafdculus of five or fix 
ftrong fpines •, on each fide about thirty-fix ; grows to the length 
of between four and five inches. 7ab. xx\i\.fig. 25. 
Inhabits all our feas ; often found in the belly of the cod-fifh.. 

Aph. Lin. Sjfi. 1084. Baftir^n. 66. tab. "A. fig. £. Sfnammata^ 

Aph. with the back covered with two rows of large fcales^ doci- 
' duous ; about an inch long. 
Tzken off jinglefea. 
Tab. xxiii. fig. %6. 

Aph. with two rows of fcales on the back, placed alternately ; Pubtnculatm^ 
the mouth cylindric, projedting ; an inch long. cuLAxaftr"' 

Taken off Brigbtbehnjtone. Tab. xxW.Jig. 2;. 




U 1 

Class VI. 

Jmnulanh Aph. oblong ; fufiformi.annulatcdj fmooth, excepting a row of 
Iatw?.**"' fti'nute fpincs, one on each ring, running along the back ; feet 

fmall J fize two inches and a quarter i of a pale yellow color. 

^- Tab.xyivf.fig.2%. 

tSimaa. Aph. Lepidott. PtJJaf. Mi/ctl. ZotU 209. tah. ivi.fig, I. ». wL 15. 

ii^ Little* 

Aph. with fniallfcales} Qenderj not an inch long. 
Taken off Angkfea. Tab. xsivf.jig. 29. 

HEREIS. XII. Oblong flender body. 

Feet formed like a pencil of rays, and numerous on each 

Mouth at the extremity, unguiculated. 
Feathered feelers above the, mouth. 

30i NocTi- 

N. SegmentMXxiii. corpow vis confpicBO. I/». Sjft. 1085. 
NoAilnca marina. Amtem- Acad. 
Btffittt i. tab. iy. Jig' i. 

Thefc are the animals that illuminate ^he fea, like glow-worms, 
but with brighter fplcndor. I have at night, in rowing, fecn the 
whole element as if on fire round me •, every oar fpangled with 
them i and the water burnt with mort than ordinary brightnefs. 
I have taken up fome of the water in a bucket, feen them for'a 
fliort fpace illuminate it ; but when I came to fearcb for them, 

their extreme finallnefs eluded my examination. 


Class VI. W O R M 3i jy 

Ncrcii. ZiVf. Syjt. 1085. IscmJMi. 

R4t/tL i^ftM* Poljp. tab. Ixjdx. 3 j . Bog. 

N. with a linear jointed body, with a filiform foot ifluing from 
each •, the w;hole animal of the fize of a^ fliorc briftle of a hog ; an 
objeft of the microfcope. 
Inhabits wet places. 

Nereis. Lh.Sjfi. io86. FMm.Sm* No^ttg^.^ demba. 

N. fmooth^ deprefled; with 184 fegments of a* blulfh-green 
color, femirpellucid ^ a longitudinal fulats runs along the belly, 
about four inches long. 

Inhabits the deeps. Two figures arc given, fg. i. on its bdly, 
2« on its back, fktmngthe /ulcus. 

N. with a very flender depreflcdbody 5 two black (pots on the Jt$/a» 
front ; attenuated at dje end when it draws in its forceps ; a blood- 33-R«»* 
red longitudinal line along the middle of the back;, the fo- 
ments very numerous ; about four inches long. 
Taken off Ai^Ufia. Tai. xxv.^g. 33. 

Nereis.. PaUaf Mijt. /• 131. tut. iz. /^^ i?* Ocmciiligm. 

34* Snbll;. 

N. with a flat body, attenuated towards the tail ; pellucid ^ about 
thirteen feet on each fide 5 about the mouth a feries of very fine 

Inhabits the Sab£li.a Tubifittnis. No. 163. of this work. 

5 XIIL Body. 


WO R M S. Class VI. 

ASCIDIJ. XIII. Body fixed to a (hell, rock, Sec- 

Two apertures, one on the fummit 
The other lower, forming a Iheath« 

ttuftkaf Afc. Lin.Sjft. 1087. 
35* Rustic* 

Asc. with fcabrous extremities; one end bending upwards; 
middle part fmooth ; lower flat ; of a brown colon 

Taken off Scarborough, Animals of this genus have the faculty 
of fquirting out the water they take in. Tab, xxiiu fig. 35. 

JCTINU. XIV. Body oblong, round, affixing itfelf to fome other fubftancc. 
The top dilatable, furrounded within with numberlefs 

Mouth the only aperture ; furniflicd with crooked teeth. 

iaJcata* Hydha tentaeolit denudatiif numerofiffimisy coipore longitadinaliter falcato. 

36. SuL- Coirtmr, Pk. Tr. 1761. /. 75. tab. i. b.fg. i. A. fi. 


- Ac. with a body marked with trifurcated fulci 5 and fummit fur- 
rounded with long flender teniacula^ from 120 to 200 in number; 
color of the body pale chefnut ; of the tentacula a fea-green, varied 
with purple. 

Inhabits the rocks of the Comijb and AngUJea feas. 


CtxnVl .W OR M 


HroRACtlyciflora, teaucolii rotraAIlibuf varfegatii corporc wrr ucofo. Iii4. Pedyneulata 
fiZ.A.b.C. 37. Stalk V. 

Ac. with a long cylindric ftattc, expanding at top, and tubercu- 
lated. The tentacula difpofed in feveral ranges, fhort, and when 
open, form a radiated angular circumference, like a beautiful 
flower, with a fmooth polygonal difc •, the color of the flalk, a 
fine red -, of the tentacula varied with feveral colors. This fpeciei 
is retraftile. 
Inhabits Cornwall 

Htdra difciflora* tenttculis retraf^ilibiu fubdiapiianif ; corpore cyfiDdricOr Vtrrui C 
miliaribus glaodulis longitadinallter ftriato. Ibid. fig. 4. A. B. ^g^ o ; 

Ac. with a long cylindric ftalk j marked with elegant fmall 
tubercles, difpofed in llrait lines from top to bottom ^ the circum- 
ference of the mouth ftriated, furrounded with Ihort petals, like 
thofe of the fun-flower \ and thofe again with white Sentacuhy barred 
with brown. When drawn in, it aflumes the form of a bell ; 
and the lines of tubercles converge to the central of the fummit. 
Body of a pale red. 
Inhabits Cornwall 

Htdra difciflora, tentacalit retraOiliboi, extimo difci mareiae toberciilatow gr ^aw 

Ac. with a fmooth (hort thick ibdk } the edge of the difc fur- 
founded with a Angle row of tubercles 1 the tentacula numerous 

' G and 


and flender. Coldr a dull crimfon. Retradile^ and flings itfelf 
in that ftate into the form pf a conoid button. 
Inhabits moft of our rocky fhorcs. 

Fintafeiala. Actinia dianthai. Ellis. Pb% ?r« 1^67./. 436. tab. inx.f. S; 



Ac. with a circular contrafted mouth ; the difc divided into five 
lobes, covered with leveral feries of fhort Tubulated tentaculs. 
Stalk fhort and thick. When contraded, aflumea the form of a 
long white fig. . 

Inhabits the rocks near Haftings. Sussex^ 

KOLOTHURIJ. XV. Body not affixed ; naked 5 gibbous. 

Many teniactda at one extremity, furrounding the mouths* 

PtntaSis. Hoi.. Lim.Syft. logi^ 

41. Five- Hydra coroUiflora untacnlis retraftilibas firondofie. Gaertmr. Pb* Tr. 1761. 
aowBD. /• 75. tab. i. b^fig* 3* A. B.^ 

H. with an incurvated cylindric body, marked with longitudinal 
rows of papilU ; out of the centre of each ifTue, at will, flender 
feelers like the horns of fnails ; the upper extremity retraftile ^ 
when exerted, aflumes a cordated form, furrounded at the apex 
with eight tencacula, elegantly ramified, of a yellow and filver 

Found on the Ihore between Penfance and Newland.. Suppofed 
to inhabit the deep. 
.3 The 

Class VI. WORMS. 4$ 

The figure engraven to illuftratc this genus was dredged up near 
l9^eymoutb. Tai. xxvi. fg. 41. 

Ariftotle and Pliw;f make ufe of the words OXo^oi^ix and Holo- 
iburia • ; but I fliould imagine, from the context, that they intend 
thofe marine bodies, which modern naturalifts ftyle Zoopbyta^ 
perhaps Alcyonia : for both of the former make them analogous 
with plants. Yet Ariftotk hints that they have life; a difcovcry 
aiTumed in later times. 

XVI. Body oblong ; roundifli \ which affixes itfelf to^other animals LERNSA. 
by Its tentacula. 
A thorax heart-fhaped. 
Two, or three tentacula in form <^ arms. 

v. Lin. Sjfi. I0^i» Famt.SMfC* No.2io2» Salmonea. 

42. Salmon. 

L. with an ovated body, cordated thorax, and two linear arms 
approaching nearly to each othe;. 

Inhabits the gills of ialmon. Obferved in great numbers on the 
firft arrival of that fiih out of the fca \ but after being a little time 
in frelh waters, drops off and dies. The falmon is reckoned in 
higheft feafon when thefc vermes are foun4 in them. Called by the 
filhermen, falmon-Uce. 

• Arifi»t. Hifi. dn. Ub* i. <•. I. diPart. A. Ub* m r. 5. Plimi Hift* Nat. 
kbn uu €. 47* 

' G 3 XVIL Eight 



SEPIJ. XVIL Eight arms placed round the mouth, with imall concave 
COTTLE. °.. ^u'CA 

dues on their inudes. 

Often two long tentacula. 

Mouth, formed like a horny beak. 

Eyes, placed beneath the tenUcula. 

Body flefhy, a (heath for the bread. 

A tube at the bafe of the laft. 

X«Air«« LoHgo, five Calamaros. Maitbiol. im Ditfcmd. 1%J» 

43« Griat^ Loliffo magna. Rondil. 506. 

Le Cafleron. Bihn. oftuu* 342. 

Sepia. Um. Syfi. 1096. JV0. 4.^ SiLMmfn vl^tuS. vr»/g» ir t.. 

Fimm* Su$c* N0. 2107. Btrlafi CoruwaU. iuh. Xt.fg* %j. 

S. with ihort arms and long /^i!r/^«&i ; the lower part of the body 
rhomboid and pinnated, the upper thick and cylindric. - 

Inhabit all ouf feas \ are gregarious ; fwift in their motions ; 
take their prey by means of their arms; and embracing it, bring 
it to their central mouth. Adhere to the rocks, when they wilh 
to be quiefcent, by means of the concave difcs that are placed along, 
tbcir arms. ^ab. xxvii. fig. 43. 

Oa^^U* Le Poafpi«. BiUn. aquat. 336* 

44. EiGBT- Polypi prima fpecies. /^#m/r/. 513. 

AJLMID^ Sepia, i/jv. Sjfi. 1045. iVtf. I. Sih.Mmf, iii. tab. lu fig. i. 

S. with a (bort round body, without fins or tentacula ; with only 

eight arms i, connected at their bottom by a membrane. This 

10 u 

Class VL WORMS. 45 

is the Polypus of Plinyy which he diftinguifhcs from the Loli£9r 
and Sepiay by the want of tentacula. 

Inhabits our feas. In hot climates thefe are found of an enor^ 
mous fize. A friend of mine, long refident among the Indian 
ides, and a diligent obferver of nature, informed me that the 
natives affirm, that fome have been feen two fathoms broad over 
their centre, and each arm nine fathom long. When the Indians 
navigate their little boats, they go in dread of them ; and lead 
thefe animals (hould fling their arms over, and fink them,, thef 
never fail without an ax to cut them ofi; ^a^. zxviii. Jig. 44^ 

S* Lin. Sjfi. 1093. 

Loligo Parva. Rom&l, 508. Sii. Muf. ilL tab. iv.^. f» tti^ak 


S. with a long, flender, cylindric body ; tail finned, pointed^ and 
carinated on each fide ; two long tentacula ; the body almoft tranf- 
parent ; green, but convenible into a dirty brown, confirming the 
remark of PUny *,, that they change their color thro* fear, adapt- 
ing it, ChameUon like, to that of the place they are in. The eyes 
are large and finaragdine. ^ab. 'xxvL.fig. 45.. 

S. Lin, Sjft. 109& StpUla. 

Scpiola. Romiil. 519.. .46. SuAi.!^ 

S. with a (hort body, rounded at the bottom \ a round fin on each 
fide ; two tentacula. 

Taken oS Flintjbire. Tab. xxix.^. 46m, 

• Lit. Ix, c. 29^ 

4« WORMS. CiAwVI. 

Officinalis* La Seiche. Belon, aquat* 338. MatthisU in Dicfatii. 326. Sepia. R91UUL 498. 
47* Offici* ^#^. ilf«(/I iii. tab. iii* ygp. f 9 2. S* OfficiAalii. £/«• ^^. 1095. Joirx. ^Mr. 
ITAL. Atf* 2706* Jf matin Actti* 

S. with an ovated body; fins along the whole of the* fides, and 
almoft meeting at the bottom ; two long tentactila ; the body 
contains the bone, the cuttU-hont of the Ihops, which wa§ formerly 
ufed as an abforbent. 

The bones are frequently flung on all our (hores ; the animal 
very rarely. 

This (in common with the other fpecies) emits, when frighted or 
purfued, the black liquor which the antients fuppofed darkened 
the circumambient wave, and concealed it from the enemy. 

Th* endangered Cutile thus evades his fears. 
And native hoards of fluid fafcty bears. • 
A pitchy ink peculiar glands fupply, 
Whofe fliades the fliarpefl: beam of light defy. 
Purfu'd he bids the fable fountains flow^ 
And wrapt in clouds eludes th' impending foe. 
The fifli retreats unfeen, while felfrborn night, 
yTith pious (hade befriends her parent's flight^. 

The antients fometimes made ufe of it inftead of ink, Fergus 
mentions the fpecies in his defcription of the noble ftudent. 

* 7fm'8 TraailatioA of OffioB^s Balintt. lib. iii. 


ClasbVL W O R M 8^ ^ 

Jam YiheVy et bicolor poficis membrana capillis^ 
Inque manus chartae> nodoiaque venit arundo. 
Turn qucrimur, crafTus calamo quod pendeat humor ^ 
Nigra quod infufa' vanefcat Sepia Lympha *• 

At lengthy his book he fpreads ; his pen he takes r 

His papers here, in learned order lays ; 

And there, his parchment's fmoothcr fide difplay^^ 

But oh ! what crofles wait on Itudious men. 

The Cuttle's juice hangs clotted at our pen.. 

In all my life fucb ftuff I never kneWj 

So gummy thick — ^Dilute it, it will do. 

Niify now Uis water I Deydek.. 

This animal was efteemed a delicacy by the antients ; and is eateo^ 
even at prefent by the Italians. Rondeletius gives us two receipts* 
for the drefling f, which may be continued to this day. Atbenaus ^ 
alfo leaves us the method of making an antique Cuttle-fiih fau- 
fage y and we learn from AriftotU ||> that chofe animals are .in* 
higheft feafon, when pregnant^ 

* SMt. iii. t Dt Fifi. 5 10^ t Jah vii. p* it6* 

g kib* viii* c. 30. Hift* Jn*^ 


^j WORMS. CtAssVI. 

MEDUSJ. XVIII. Body gelatinous, orbicular, convex above j flat or concave 

Mouth beneath, in the middle, 
Tentacula placed below, 

Ftt/ca. BoRLA«B*i CargwgJI, p. 256. tal.xxv.Jf. 7, «•* 

4H. Brown. 

M. with a brown circle in the middle ; fixteen rays of the fame 
color pointing from the circumference towards the centre. On 
the circumference a range of oval tubercles, and crooked fangs 
placed alternately. Four ragged tcniacula extend little farther than 
the body. 

Purpura. BorlaseV Cornwall, p. 257, iah. JXV* fig* g> lO« 

49. Purple. 

M. with a light-purple crofs in tlie centre^ between each bar of 
the crois, is a horfe-flioe-ihaped mark of deep purple ; from the 
circumference diverge certain rays of pale purple. Four thick 
tentacula^ (hort, not extending farther than the body. 

TuhraiJaiM, Bo%L AtnU Coranmll, p. 257* tat. %xr.J!g, 11, it. 

50. TVBSR* 

M. with fifteen rays pointing to and meeting at a fmall fpot in 
the centre. Round the edges are fmall oval tubera ; four plain 
tentacula extending far beyond the body* 


Class VL W O R M fc 49 

Borlasb'j Cornwall, p. 257. tab. JXV.JSg. i$« Undulata. 

51. Waved. 

M. with undulated edges, with fangs on the projefting parts j 
four orifices beneath ; between which rifcs a ftem, divided into 
eight large ragged tentacula. 

BoRLASE'i Ccntwall, /• 258. tai. xxy./g» i6» 17* Lunulata. 

52. LUNU- 

M. with the circumference tuberculated on the edges; in tlie 
center of the lower part are four conic appendages forming a crofs ; . 
feveral others, like ferrated leaves, furround it. Eight tentacula^ 
not exceeding the edges of the body ; eight femllunar apertures, 
one between each tentaculum. 

BorlasbV Ccrmvall, /. 257. tai* xxv.Jig. ij* X4« Simplex. 

53. Arm- 

M. with a plain circumference; four apertures beneadi; no tent acula. 
Thefe animals inhabit all our feas ; are gregarious \ often feen 
floating with the tide in vail numbers ; feed on infe£fcs, fmall filh, 
&c. which they catch with their clafpers or arms. Many fpecies, 
on being handled, afife£k with a nettle-like burning, and excite a 
rednefs. The antients, and fome of the nnoderns, add fomething 
more ♦. They were known to the Creeks and Romans f , by the 

* Pruritom in padendis, et oredinemin manibus et oculis movent, atque acri- 
monia faa, venerem fopitam, vel extindam excitant. RwJeL 532. In feveral 
taoguages they are called by an obfcene name. 

f Arift, Hifi. Am. lib. v. c. 15. Dio/coriAs notis Maitbiol. 341. Pliniit 
lib. ix. c 47* 

H names 

£0 WORM'S. Class VI. 

names of Ilyiupa S^xxx»tr<rio^j and Pulmo marimsy Sea-Lungs, 
They attributed medicinal virtues to them, Dhfcorides ♦ informs 
us, that if rubbed frefli on the difeafed part, they cured the gout 
in the feet, and kibed heels. jElian f fays, that they were de^ 
^ pilatory, and if macerated in vinegar, would take away the beard* 
Their pbofpborous quality is well known ; nor was it overlooked 
by the antients. Plinj notes, that if rubbed with a ftick it will 
appear to burn, and the wood to fhine all over j;. The fame 
elegant naturalift remarks, that when they link to the bottom of 
the fea, they portend a condnuance of bad weather. I muft not 
omit, that Ariftollej and Atbenaus dftcr him, give to fome fpecies 
the apt name of KyiJSv, or the nettUf from their ftlnging 
quality |I. 

The antientsdivided their Kyitn into two clafles, thofethat adhered 
to rocks, ihRASHnia of Linnaeus ; and thofe that wandered through 
the whole element. ' The laft are called by later writers Urtica Sth^ 
kta ; by LinnauSy Meduf£ ; by the common people Sea GelUes 
and Sea Blubbers. 

I do not find that the moderns make any ufe of them. They 
' are left, the prey of baiking Iharks, perhaps of other marine 

• P. 341* t l>i Mmal. lih. xiii. c. 27. % Lib. xviii. Cr 35. 

t^€*i6. Jbbin^m, lib.m.p.go. 

XIX. Deprefied 

Class VI, W Q R M Si $i 

XIX. DeprcflTcd bodyj covered with a coriacfous coati fur- JSTERIAS. 


nifhcd with five or more rays, and numerous rctra^ile ? 

Mouth in the center. 


AsT. £i/r. 9yfi. 1099. Faun. Smc. Xtr. 2ii3« . Glaciaiu, 

Stella coriaceaacocafigulalatea vulgaris Llvidii. tiMdis, p. ju M^ xxxvi* 54. 9<>m« 

N0. 61* MON. 

AsT. with five rays deprefled ; broad at the bafe ; fub-angular, 
hirfute, yellow i on the back, a round (triated opercule. 

Thefe are found fombtimes defe£tive^ or with only four rays. 
See Linckiusy tab. xxxv. Jig. 60. 

Common in all our feas i feed on oyfterS) and are very deftruAive 


.<(eOa-iiebtt^ktidM etnoelktft anooMlM. CMratu 

litdiit >. 3«. tai. Jdr. Ne. %$. nd tab* vii. N: 9. js.CAiicifcr 


AsT. with five ibort thick rays; hirfute beneath; cancellated 
Found with the former ; more rare. T^b. xxx. fign 7; 

H f rcfttsdaetf^ 

5a W O R .M ^S, CalsiVI. 

Oculata. Pentada^lofafiei' 0€ulatus# Linciii, /• 31* tsi. xxzvi* No. 52. 

56.D0TTED. • 

AsT. with five fmooth rays, dotted or punftured; of a fine 
purple color. 

Angkfia. Tah.xscx.fig. $6. 


Irrtgulariu Aftropedten Iritgularlf* Litukth /• 27. tat. Xi^fig* 13* 


AsT. with five fmooth rays ; the fides furrounded with a regular 
fcaly rim ; on the mouth, a plate in form of a cinquefoil ; of a 
reddifii hue. 

Hifpida. Stella corlacea acutaflgnla hifpida. Linckih /• 31* t^i* Ix. Nc, tgl 

58. Hispid. 

AsT. with five rays, broad, angulated at top; rough^ with fhors 
briftles; brown. 

Angkfea. Tab. xxx. fg. 58. 

Gihho/a. Pentacerot gibbui et plicatas, altera pane coacavas. LimkHf f* a5«*/A(«iiL 

59* GiB« Nc. 20. 

Boxia. BorlasbV CormvaUf /• 266. tsi. jxt.fg. 2^, 26. 

AsT. with very fliort broad rays (Tightly proje6Eing ; a pentangu- 
lar fpecies, much elevated, fmall, covered with a rough ikin ; 
brown ^ the mouth in the midft of a pentagon. 


Stella quinqucfida palmipcs. LinciUf, /• 29. fai. u fg* 2^. Placenta. 

Fcnicffii^an*! N9rwaj, pzxt. ii. 179. 59,A.Flat. 

AsT. with five very broad and membranaceous rays, extremely 
thin and flat. 

Tat. xxxi. Jig. 59*. A. 

W^moutb. From the Portland cabinet*. 

Pentadaaylofafter fpinofas regularis* ItMciii, tab. iv. No. 7. Borlasb'j Corn' Spino/ai 
wmU, p. 259* tab* xxy. fig. 18.. 6o« Sfiny. 

AsT. with five rays of almoft equal thickncfs, befet with nume* 
rous ipines.. 

JfFIVE-RAYED, with flender or ferpentiform rays. 

Hirfata, feo fteU» grallatoria vel maerofoeles Lvi»ii* LsMckii, /• 50* Minuta. 

61. Mi- 

AsT. with around body, and five very flender and long hirfute rays. 

Found by Mr. Lluyd near Denbigh. 

Stella lacertofiu Linckih p* 47* t^ ii« No. 4. Latmofit. 

62. LiZARP* 

AsT. with five fmooth flender rays, fcaled, jointed, white. Unckius 
calls this Lacertofa^ from the likenefs of the rays to a Lizard's tail. 
Angkjta. Tab* xxxii. jS^. 62. 



Vh O K M S. Class VI 

Sfh^fruUfa. Arr. with a pentagonal indented body, fmooth above the apcr« 
63, Beaded. ^^^^ ,^ below five-pointed \ between the bafe of each ray a fmall 

globular bead ^ the rays flcndcr» joiqtedi taper i hirfute on their 

Angkfea. Tab. xxxiufig. 63. 

Fimaphylla. Borlasb'^ Cornwall, /• 260* iak ZSV./f. 24* 


AsT. with the body regularly cinquefoil; rays very flender^ 
hirfute on the fides^ teiTulated above and below with green, fome- 
times with Iky-bluc. 


Fitria. BoRLAisV C^Mwall, /« i^g. tat. xxv. fg.tu 

65. PlBD* 

AsT. with a circular body, with ten radiated ftreaks } the ends 
of a lozenge form ; the rays hirfute, annulated with red. 

Jcnbatd* Borlasb*/ Cornwall, /• 259. 1«j« jDnr« /^. ig. 
66. Radx- 


AsT. with a round body, with ftreaks from its centre alternately 
broad and narrow i the rays (lender, hirfute* 


Class VI. WORMS. 55 


AsT. with a pentagonal body indented; of auleep brownifh-red 
hue, marked with ten ochraceous ftreaks ; five of the ftreaks 
flender, with javclin^Ihaped extremities \ rays hirfute» jointed. 

BorlasbV C§r9nvaU,f. 259. tal,xm*fg. zo. Fiffk^ 

68. Indent^ 


AsT. with a circular body, with five equidiftant dents, penetrat- 
ing deep into the fides ; five light^colored ftreaks darting from the 
centre; raysflender, hirfute, 

BoiLAaB'j CormvaU, /• 260. taL jx^*JSg* 23* 

AsT. with a pentagonal body, black, with five radiating ftreaks j^^^^^ 
of white ; rays hirfute olivaceous^ teflulated with deeper fliades. 69. Black 

.% With more than FIVE RAYS. 

Stella decacnemos rofacea, (ea decempeda Cprnuhiinfiim* Linckiu /• 5S* Bifida* 
/4 £• xxzvii. ^« 66* 70* Bifid* 

AsT. with ten flender rays, befet with tendrils on their fides ; the 
mouth furroundcd with (hort filiform rays. 
Cornwall. \o »<«"« 

5^ WORMS. Class VI. 

DuacmmQu Stella decacnemos burbata, feu fimbriatfti £«rrf//>. Zinckii,p* ^^* tah.xxxvMm 
71. Ten- fig. 64. 


AsT. with ten very flender rays, with numbers of long teards on 
the fides J the body fmall, furrounded beneath with ten fmall 
filiform rays. 

Inhabits the weftern coafts of Scotland. Tab. xxxiii.^^. yi. 

HeUanthi' :Stclla dodccaOis Hclianthcmo ffmilis. Linchsy /. 42* tab. xnufig. 28. 

moides f ' * 


AsT. with twelve broad rays finely reticulated, and roughened 
with fafciculated long papillae on the upper part ; hirfute beneath ; 

Thefe vary into thirteen, fuch as the Trifcaideca3is of Linckius. 
Tab. xxxAv.fig. 54. 1 have had one.of fourteen rays. 

Ariftotle and Pliny * called this genus Ar«/>, and ftelia marina^ 
fays the firft, from their refemblance to the pidured form of the 
ftars of heaven. They afferted that they were fo exceedingly hot, 
as inftantly to confume whatfoever they touched. 

Arhorefcifu. Ailerias caput mednfae. Lin. Syft. woi. 
73. Arbo- Soe-Soele. Pontop. Norway^ iL i8o* 


AsT. with five rays ifiuing from an angular body ; the rays divid« 
ing into innumerable branches, growing flenderer as they receded 
from the bafe ; the mod curious of the genus. 

• Jriftpu Htft. Jn. Uh. V. u 15: JPlmiJJift. Nat. lib. \x. c. 60. 


Class VI. W O II M »• 5f 

Founds as I have be^n told, in die north <^ Scotland. The late 
worthy DoAor William Bcrlaft ta£»raied me that it had been tiakea 
off Cornwall. 

XX. Body covered with a futured cruft, often furnifhed with SCHINVS. 
moveable fpines. 
Mouth quinquevalve, placed beneath^ 

Echinus, Lin. $y/, 1102. Lifl. AmgU 169. /«*. Uh ^/cnl^tm. 

Ex»w? ^a* Ariftou Hift. An. Uh.iv. f . V. 74* *'^''* 

Tab. xjxiy. fig. 7 \. ^■"' 

EcH. of a haBmifphcrical form, covered with fliaip ftrong fpincs, 
above half an inch long ^ commonly of a violet color, moveable^ 
adherent to fmall tubercles, elegantly difpofed in rows. Thefe are 
their tnftruments of motion, by which they change their place. 

This fpecies is often taken in dredging, and often lodges in 
cavities of rocks juft within low*watcr mark. 
. Are eaten by the poor in many parts of England^ and by the 
better fort abroad. In old times a favorite difh. They were 
drefled .with vinegar, honied wine, or mead, parfley and mint ; 
and efteemcd to agree with the ftomach *. They are the firft difli 
in the famous fuppcr of Lentulus f , when he was made Ftamen 
Martialis^ prieft of Mars. By fome of the concomitant difhes, 
they feem defigncd as a whet for the fccond courfe, to the holy 
perfonages, priefts, and veftals invited on the occafion. Many 

* AtbiMaiUt lib. iii. /. 91. t Macrtbius, as quoted by ArhttbnH* 

I (pecies 

W O . R M S. Class VI. 

fpccics of Ihell fifli made part of the feaft. The reader will per- 
haps find fome amufement in learning the tafteof the Roman people 
of fafhion in thefc articles. 

Echinij the fpccies here defcribed. 

Oftrea Crud^^ raw oyfters. 

Pelorida ♦, a fort of Mya^ dill ufcd as a food in fome {daces.. 
Vide No. 1 5. 

Spbondyliy a fort of Bivalve, with ftrong hinges, found in the 
Mediterranean fea- Not the griftly part of oyfters, as Dodor 
Arbutbnoi conjeftures. 

Patina Oftrearum. Perhaps ftewcd oyfters. 

Pelorides. Balani nigri et albi *, two kinds of Lepades. 

Spbondyliy again. 

Glycymerides f . A ftiell. I fufpeft to be the feme with the 
Ma£lra Lutraria of this work. No. 44. * 

Aduricesj Purpura. Turbinated fhells, whofe fpecies I cannot 
very well determine, there being more than one of each in the 
Italian feajs. 

CorJatMs. Ethintts fpatagas. Lin. Sj/. 1104. Lift. dpp. tah. i. fig. 15. 


EcH. of a cordated (hape, gibbous at one end, and marked with 
a dtt^ /ulcus 2lX the other ; covered with flender fpines refembling 
briftles. Shell moft remarkably fragile. 
Length, two inches. Tab. xxxiv. fig. 75.. 

• Rwdel. Tift^ctaj /. 11. f Wcm. /. 13. 


Class VI. .WORMS. gf 

Liu. Sjfi. 1104. Jr^iHvUli, 3lo« tatt txv./g. K. L^uunofiu. 

Rmmpb* Mmf. $mt. xiv.^. s. 76. Ovac 

EcH. of an oval dcprcYTcd form •, on the top of a purple color, 
marked with a quadrefoil, and the fpaces between tuberculaced in 
waved rows ; the lower fide ftudded ^ and divided hj two fmooth 

Length, four inches. When cloathed, is covered with Ihort 
thickfef bridles mixed with- very long ones. 

fFtymoushj from the Portland cabinet. Tat. xxxv.fg. 76. 

Do£tor Borlafe gives a figure of an EcbinuSy found in Mounl*j 
Bayy that refembles in fiiape the above \ but I cannot, either from 
defcription or print, determine whether it be the young, or diftind. 
Vide NaS. Hift, Cornwall^ p. 278. Sab. xxviii.J^, 26. 

1 ,2 Div. III. 

(^ 5 H E L t & CiASaVL: 


VERMES of the foft kind, and fimple make, commonly covered 
with a calcareous habitatbn. 


CIBTON- L The animal, or inhabitant of its fheU, the Doris. 

The ihell plated, conflfting of maay parts» lying upon eacl| 
other tranfverfely^ 

Sect*. !•. Multivalvb Shells. 

Crimtms. Ch* Tlir^^ ^^^^ valves; thick fet with ihort hairs; five*: 
I. Hai&y.. Y V eighths of an inch long. 

Of the natural fize. A. i. magnified. 

Inhabits the fea near Aberdeen. Tai. xzxvi. j^. i» 

MarpM0iMi. Ch. with eight valves ; with a ftffrated reflefted margin,, finoojth i 
J;JJ^^°'- fize of the figure. Tai.icxxyi.Jijr.2. 
Inhabits the lea near SsartorougK 

tt Cm witl& 


S H 

L S, 


Ch. with eight valves ; quite fmooth, with a longitudinal mark L^tvis, 
along the back*; a little elevated. Size of a wood-loufe. ^ai. ^* mooth. 
zxxvi. fig* Z^ . 

, Inhabits the fliores of Locb Broom in fTeft Ro/s-Jbire. 

The inhabitant of this fhell is a fpecies of the Doris. 

Jhe name Chifon^ taken from ;^iTiair, Lorua^ a coat of mail. 

IL Its animal the TaiTOif. LEPAS^ 

The Iheli multivalve, unequal, fixed l^ a ftem : or fcflil. ACORN. 

Ifcepas. Lin. Sjfi.. I loy. Fami.Suic. N4: %\%2. Balatmi. ^ 

CoflUDon £r^/fj^ Barnacle. £lli8 Pit. 7V\ 1758. Tak. xxidv.Jl^. 17. 4. Comuon. 

L. of. a conoid form,, fmooth, and brittle *, the lid or operculum 
fliarp pointed. 

Found adhering to rocks, oyAers, and fhell-filh of various forts. 
Tah. xxxvii. fig. j^ 

ii. Lin. Sjft* I loS. Faum. Sua. ffo. 2f2^. L\fi. AngU tab. "t^fig* 41 • 

L. with ftrong fulcated fhells \ aperture fmaller in proportion than 
the former. 

Adheres to the fame bodies^ ^dh. xxxvii. /j*. 5. 

^ere, the figure, A. 5. if not an accidental variety ? ; 




62 SHELLS. Class VL 

Cfnuhiinfis. Lepas Cornubienfis. Ellis Ph.Tr. 1758. tab, JXm./i> 16. 
6. Cornish. Bvrlaje Kat. Bifi, CwrnwalU 

L. in form of a limpet, with a dilated bottom, and rather narrow 
aperture ; the fhell fulcaced near the lower edges. 7ah. xxxvii. 
fig. 6. 

Striata. L. with the Ihells lapping over each other, and obliquely ftriated. 
7-^ Stri AT. r^^^ j.^^ ^^^^ Weymouth. Tab. xxxviii. fig. 7. From the Port- 

LAN'D cabinet. 

Tintinnahu" L. Lin. Sjfi. iio8. 

8. Bell. 

L. with a large deep (hell, rugged on the outfide, of a purple 

As large as a walnut. 

Found frequently adhering to the bottom of (hips, in great 
clufters. , Probably originated in hot climates. 

Anatiftra. L. Liu. Syfi. 1 109. Faun. Suec. No* 2 120. Lifi. Conch, tab. 439. 

9, Anati- 


L. coflfifting of five fhells, deprefled, affixed to a pedicle, and 
in clufters. Tah. xxxviii. fig. 9. 

Adheres to (hips bottoms by its pedicles. 

The tentacula from its animal are feathered ; and have given our 
old Engli/h hiftorians and naturalifts the idea of a bird. They afcri- 
bed the origin of the Barnacle Goofe to thefe (hells. The account 



given by the Sage Gerardy is fo curious, that I beg leave to tran- 
fcribc it. 
< But what our eyes have feene, and hands have touched, we 

* (hall declare. There is a ftnall ifland in Lancajhire called the 

* Pile of Fouldersy wherein are found the broken pieces of old 

* and bruifed fhips, fome whereof have been caft thither by (hip- 

* wracke, and alfo the trunks and bodies with the branches of old 

* and rotten trees, caft up there likcwife j whereon is found a cer- 

* taine fpume or froth that in time breedeth unto certaine fhds, 

* in (bape like thofe of the Mufkle, but (harper pointed, and of a 

* whiti(h colour ; wherein is contained a thing in form like a lace 

* of (like finely woven as it were together, of a whitilh colour ; 

* one end whereof is fattened unto the infide of the IhcU, even as 
*. the fi(h of Oifters and Mulkles are : the other end is made faft 

* unto the belly of a riide maflc or lumpe, which in time commeth 

* to the Ihape and form of a bird : when it is perfeftly formed, 

* the (hell gapeth open, and the firft thing that appeareth is the 

* forefaid lace or ftring ; next come the legs of the bird hanging 

* out, and as it groweth greater it openeth the (hell by degrees, 

* till at length it is all come forth, and hangeth onely by the bill : 

* in (hort fpace after it commeth to firil maturitie, and falleth into 

* the fea, where it gathereth feathers, and groweth to fowle 

* bigger than a Mallard and \cfftr than a Goofe, having blacke 

* legs and bill or beake, and feathers blacke and white, fpotted in 

* fuch manner as is our Mag Pie^ called in Ibme places a Pie^ 

* Jnnefj which the people of Lancajhire call by no other name than 
' a tree Goofe : which place aforefaid, and all thofe parts adjoyn- 

* ing, do fo much abound therewith, that one of the beft is bought 
' for three pence. For the truth hcreofi if any doubt, may it 

* plcafc , 

€4 SHELLS. Class VI. 

« plcafe them to repaire unto me, and I fiiall fatisfie them by the 
* teftimonie of good witncffcs.* F/^ Herbal, p. 1587, 1588. 

This genus is called by Linnaus^ Lepas, a name that is given 
by the antients to the Patella. Shells of Lhis clafs are called by 
Ariftotle^ Bot,xnvot *, from the refemblance fome of them bear to 
acorns. We have feen before in the account of the fupper of Lr»- 
iulusj that they were admitted to the greatcft tables. 

FUOLJS. HI. Its animal an AsciD I A. 

Shell bivalve, opening vfide at each- end, with feveral lefler 

(hells at the hinge. 
The hinges folded back, united with a cartilage. . 
An incurvated tooth in the infide beneath the hinge. 

DaBjluu . Ph. X/>r. Sjft. mo. Fauiu Suec. No. 2124. Lift, A^gl. J/f. Tai. xi. Jig. 3* 

10. Dac- ^ 


Ph. with an oblong fhell, marked with echinated^r/>5 the tooth 
broad ; the fpace above the hinge refledted, and cancellated beneath ; 
breadth four inches and k half; length one and a quarter. 
Tat. xxxix. J^. 10. 

Candidiu. P"- ^/»* ^jft* im* ^{ft- ^9gU tab. V.fig. 39. 
lit White. 

Ph. with a brittle (hell, and fmoothcr than the former \ the tooth 
very flcndcr} breadth an inch and an halfj length near an inch. 
S!ab. xxxix. ^. 11. 

* Hijt. An. lib. T. r.45« 

Ph. Liu* 

Class VL 8 H E L L S^' ^s 

Ph. Lm. Sjjt. int. Lift. Jt^h tai. v. /;. 38. Cri^atui. 

Ph. with a ftrong' oval Ihell; the half next to the hinge waved 
and ibriated; tooth large and ftrong; breadth three inches and 
a half) length one and three quarters.' Tak xl. fig. 12. 

This genus takes its name from paxtu^ to lurk in cavities* A 
Ihell of the name of Pbclis and Pbolas^ is mentioned by AriftotU 
and Aiben^eus ; but I fufpeft it to be the Darius of Ptinf. A fpe- 
cies now called Daiyk abounding within the rocks of the Mediter- 
ranean^ is much admired as a food *• 

Ph. with a fliell thinner than the former ; and the tooth very Parws* 
Hender and oblique; in externals refembling the former, only '3* Little. 
iiever found larger than a hazel nut. 

I have often taken them out of the cells they had formed in 
hard clay, below high-water mark, on many of our Ihores. They 
alfo perforate the hardeft oak plank that accidentally is lodged in 
the water. I have a piece filled with them, which was found near 
Penfacola in Weft Florida^ and prefentcd to me by that ingenious 
naturalift the late John Ellis, Efquire. 

I have alfo found them in mafles of folTil wood, in the fhores of 
Abergelli in DenHgbftnre. The bottom of the cells are round, and 
appear as if mcely turned with ibme lAftrument. 

Tab. xl. fg* 13- 

• fli$ff, M. iz. r. 61. Jrmftrcj^s Hift. Mi»9rc09 ij^. 

* • 

K t>iv. II. 

U shells: Class VI. 


^^* IV. Its animal an Ascidia. 

A bivalve fhell gaping at one end^ 

The hinge, for the moft .part, furniflied with a thxcfe^ 
ilrong, and broad tooth, not inferted into the oppcfite 

Truneata^ M. Tnincata* Lin* Syjt. iiiz. Faun. Suec. Nc* 2126. Lifi» AngU tab. T*m 

M, TTTITH a broad, upright, blunt tooth, in one fiielU the 
VY clofed end rounded; the open end truncated, and 
gaping greatly; the outiide yellow, marked with concentric 
wrinkles. Tab. xli. fig. 14. 

Lodged under flutchy ground, near low-water mark ; difcovercd 
by an aperture in the dutch, beneath which it is found in coarfe 

DrtAw. M. with a brittle half-tranfparcnt (hell, with a hingp flightly pro- 
iNc. ^^^" . minent ; lefs gaping than the Sruncata ; near the open end floping 
Frequent about the Hibrida ; the fUh eaten by the gentry. 

M» Arenariai. 


H. Aren^uia. Lin. Sj/t. tii2> Fmu. Smc. ito. iitj^ JriHorUn 

i6. Sand# 

M. with a tooth like the forriicr ; mouth large, rough at the bafe; 

the whole fhell of an ovated figure, and much narrower at the 
gaping end. 

Three inches and a half broad ; two inches long in the middle* 
^ab. xlii. 

M. Piaonim. Lm. Sjft. iii2» fMm% Suec. No. 219. Lifi- Jngh Afp. tab. u Piaorumi 
Jig. 4. 17. Paint* ^ 


M. with an oval brittle fliell ; with a fingle longitudinal tooth like 
a lamina in one ihell, and two in the other. Tab. xliii. Jig. 17. 

Breadth a little above two inches ; length one. 

Inhabits rivers. 

Ufed to put water colors in ; whence the name. Otters feed 
on this and the other frefh- water fbells. 

Lin. Sjfi. 1 1 12; Fmum: Stut. iVtf* 2130* Lifi, AngU Jff. t^. h >jf • I. MargmH* 
iciijkr Lt^UmJ^ 145. /^«- 

M. with a very thick coarfe opake jfhell; dften much decorticated ; 
oblong, bending inward on one fide^ or arcuated; black on the 
outfide ; ufual breadth from five to fix inches ; length two and a 
quarter. Tab. xliii. fig* iZ. 

Inhabits great rivers, eilpecmlty thofe which water the moun- 
ttoous parts of Great Britain. 

• K « This 

68 SHELLS, Class; VL 

This ihell is noted for producing quantities of pearl. There 
have been regular fiiheries for the fake pf this pretious article in. 
fcveral of our rivers. Sixteen have been found wkhin one Ihell. , 
They are the difcafe of the fifh, analogous to the ftone in the human 
body. On being fqueezed, they will ejedk the pearly and often caft 
it fpontaneoufly in the fand of the ftream. 

The Conway was noted for them in the days of Camiden. 
^ A notion alfo prcvales, that Sir Richard Wynnes of Gwydir^ cham-^ 
berlain to Catharine queen to Cbarks II. prefented her majefty with, 
a pearl (taken in this river) which is to this day honored with a 
place in the regal crown. They are called by the JVetfli Cregitr 
Diluwy or Deluge Shells, as if left there by the flood. 

The Irf in Cumberland was alfo produftive of them. The famous 
circumnavigator, -Sir John Hawkins ♦, had ,a patent for filhing 
that river. He had obfcrved pearls plentiful in the Straits of 
Magellauy and flattered himfelf with being inriched by procuring 
them with'm his own ifland. 

In thelaft century, feveral of great fize were gotten in the rivers 
of the county of ^Tyrone and Donegal:^ in Ireland. One that 
weighed 36 carats was valued at j[^. 40, but being foul, loft much 
of its worth. Other fingle pearls were foM for g^. 4. 10 s. and 
even for ^. 10. The laft was fold a fecond time to Lady Glen- 
leafyf who put it into a necklace, and refufed £. 80 for it from 
the Duchefs of Ormond f . 

Suetonius^ xt^rtSy that Cafar was induced to undertake his Britifl^ 
expedition for the- fake o^ our pearls; and that they were fo large 
that it was neceflary to ufe the hand to try the weight of a fingle- 
one %. I imagine that Cafar only heard this by reports and that 

♦ Gamdin. ii. 1003. t Pb. Tr^MriJg. ii» 8$i.^ 

t SMitoH. Fit. Jul. Car/, o xliv. 

5 ^^ 


the cryftalline balls in old leafes, called mineral pearly were mif- 
taken for them *• 

We believe that defar was difappointed of his hope : yet we are 
told that he brought home a buckler made with Brifijb pearl, 
-j- which he dedicated to, and hung up in the temple of Fenus 
Genetrix. A proper offering to the Goddefs of Beauty, who fprung 
from the fea. I cannot omit mentioning, that notwithftandlng the 
claflics honor our pearl with their notice, yet they report them to 
have been fmall and ill colored ; an imputation that in general they 
are (till liable to. PUtrf j: fays, that a red fmall kind was found 
about the Thracian Bofpborusy in a fhell called Mya^ but does not 
give it any mark to afcercain the fpecies. 

M. with a rudiment of a tooth within one Ihell ; with an oval and /)»&'«. 
large hiatus oppolite to the hinge.. Shells brown and brittle* cwir "" 

Shape of a piftacbia nut. 

Length of a horfe-bean. Tab. xliv. 

Found near JFey mouth. From the Portland cabinet* * 

t Flimi^ lib* ix. r« 35. Tacitus Fit* Jgricola* • % Ihidr 

V. R* 


^QLEX. T. Its animal an Ascidia. 

AAZOR. ^ bivalve ; oblong •, open at both ends. 

.At the hinge, a fubulatcd tooth turned back, often double 5 
not inferted in the oppofite (hclU 

• With the hinge near the end* 

Siliqua. Lin. Syft. 11 13. Faun. Suec. N§. Zl^l. Lift. AngU tab. T.^. 37# 

SO. Pod. Lifi* Conch, tab. 409. 

S. with a ftrait fhell, equally broad, comprefied, with a double 
tooth at the hinge, receiving another oppoiice ; and on one fide * 
another tooth Iharp pointed, and direded downwards. Color 
olive, with a conoid mark of an aih color, dividing the (hells dia- 
gonally ; one part ftriated lengthways, the other tranfverfely. 
Breadth ufually five or fix inches, fomctimes nine. 
Tab. xlv./^. 20. 

Vagina. Lin. Sj/i. 1113. Lifi. Ccnci* tab. 410* 


S. With a (hell nearly cylindrical, one end marginated ; the hinge 
confiding of a fingle tooth in each (hell placed oppofite. Shell 
yellow, marked much like the former; ufually about five or fix 
inches broad. 

Inhabits Red Wharfs AngUfea. 


Class VI. & H £ L £» S; fv 

lin. Syjt. Iii4« UJt. Angf. Jpt* ^^* ^.^, 9* Lift. Conch tai* 411* ^f* 

22. ScTiM* 


S» with a fhcll bending like a fc7meter» with hinges like thofe 
q{ the SiUfua ; and colored and marked like it. The (hell thin, 
and rounded at each eod^ Uiiial breadth four or five inches^ 
Tat. xLv. Jig. 22. . 

S. fub-arcuated and fub*oyal; with the hinge confifting c^ a (harp- PiUaeUuu 
double tooth on one fide, receiving a fingle one from the oppo- ^^J^^ ^^^^ 
fite, with a proceTs in each fhell, pointing towards (he cartilage of 
the hinge. Shell fragile, pellugid % about an inch broad* 
Tab. xlvi. fig. 23. 
Inhabits Red Wharfs Jng^fitu 

•• With the hinge near the middle* 

lin. Sjft. 1 114. Lifi. emeb, tMb.^tOm. Lignmn^ 

24. Sub* , 


S. with a ftrait fub-oval (helU with teeth exaAly refembling thofe 
of the lafl:, furnilhed likewife with fimilar proccflcs ; one end is 
ibmewhat broader than the other. Ufual breadth about two inches 
and an half. Shell fub-pellucid, radiated from the hinge to the 

3ii^. xlvi. ^. 24. 

Inhabits the fame place.. 


Cubtttut. Lin. Syjf* 1114. N9. 37. Lifi. CoaA. 421. 

IS. with a kidney-fhaped (hell ; with a fingle tooth in l)ath fides of 
the hinge. The (hell covered with a rough epidermis. Breadth near 
two inches ; length feven-eighths of an inch. 

Inhabits the fea near fFrfmwtb^ 

Tai. xlvL fg. 25. 

This fpecies borders on the fny^e^ and connects th^genera* 

I am not acquainted with the natural hiftory of the two la(L 
The three firft lurk in the fand near low-water mark, in a per- 
pendicular direfbion : and when in want of food, elevate one end 
a little above the furface, and protrude their bodies far out of the 
ihell. At approach of danger, they dart deep into the fand, 
fometimes at left two feet. Their place is known by a fmall 
dimple on the furfacc. Sometimes they are dug out of the fand 
with a (hovel ; at other times are taken by a bearded dart fud- 
denly ftruck into them. They were ufed as a food by the antients. 
Atbenaus • (from Sopbron) fpeaks of them as great delicacies, and 
particularly grateful to widows. 

Mouc^Ai xiyjfjxi cZXiPig rsriyct 

Oblongas conchas foknes^ et carne jucund^ 
Conchylium, viduarum muHerum cupedise. 

Thefe are often u(ed as a food at prefent % and brought up to 
table fried in eggs. 

^ Lit. iii. /• 86. 

, VL Its 


Class VI. 




yi. Its animal a Tethys. 

A bivalve, generally floping down on one fide. 
Three teeth at the hinge. 


♦ Ovated. 

Lin. Sjfi. 1 1 17. No» 49. 

T. with a very brittle white fhell, truncated at the narrower, and 
sounded at the broader end. An inch broad* 
Tab. xlvii. fig: 26. 


T. with a very thick depreflcd oblong (hell j white; with concen- Deprefa. 
trie ftrU. ^7-I>"*«- 

Tab. xlvii. fig. 27. 


T. with very thick, broad, and depreflcd fhells, marked with Craja* 
Numerous concentric ^n>. Breadth, an inch and three quarters ; *^* ^'•^'*' 
length, an inch and a quarter. 

Has the habit of the Venus horealis\ but the fides of this are 
unequal, one being more extended than the other. 

Tab. xlviii. fig. 28. 


74 SHELLS. Class VL 

FlMOta. Lis. Sjfi. 1 1 17. No. 52, 

29. Pi.AfN. 

T. with a very flat delicate flicU, marked with concentric lines 
of red ; the fpace about the hinge brown. Breadth, two-thirds of 
an inch. 

Tay. xlviii. Jig. ig. 

RaJUta. Lin. Sjft. 1117* No. 54. 

30. Ratbo* 

. T. with very convex fliells of a faint a(h color, radiated with red ; 
tinged within with a faint purple. Breadth an inch and an half. 
Tab. xlix. fg. 30. 

Ittcdrnam. Lin. Syft. 1118. No. 58. Faun. Smc. JV0. 2133. ^'ft* ^'^s}* ^PP* ^^^* ^'/i* ^« 
31. Carna- 

T. oblong, depreflfed ; originally covered with a thick brown 

epidermis. When naked, of a whitilh color rayed with red, and 

eroded again with minute concentric ftria. 

Ufual breadth, one inch and three quarters. 

Tab. xlvii. /^. 31. 

Carnaria. Lin. Sj/f. 1119. No. 66. Liji. AngU tal. 'y^* fig. 25. 
32. Flbsh- • 


T. with a ftrong and rounded fhell, generally of a bloom color 
within and without; externally marked with belts of deeper red. 
Breadth about feven-eighths of an inch. 


Class VI. S , H E L L S, 75 

Sometimes found quite white, as ^. 32, A. 
^ab. xXix.fig. 32. 

Lin. Sjft. 1 1 19. No. 58. rrifafciata. 


T. with a very brittle (hell, radiated like the T. Incarnata j but 

T. with oval (hells, marked with rugged concentric j?n>. This Rugofa. 
has much the habit of the Mjtilus Litbopbagus. 34.Ru.cced. 

About the fize of a filbert. 

Dredged up at ff^eymoufb. Mifplaced among the Venusei. - 
Vsie tab. Ivii. fig. 34. 

B^rlafi Hijt. Cerxwall, tat* xxviii. fig. 23* CornuHinfit^ 

35. CORo 

T. with oblong oval (hells, deeply (triated parallel to the margin« 
Defcribed by Do6tor Borlafe. 

Lin. Sjfi. 1120. N0. yt. Faun, Suic. No. 2138. Lift. AngL App. tab. i. Jig. 5. Conua. 

36. HORHY. 

T. with round (hells very convex, marked with a tranfvcrfc fur- 
row ; color brown. 

Size of a pea. 

Inhabits ponds and fre(h waters, 

Tab. xlix. fig, 36, 

L t VII. Bivalve, 


S H 


Class VL 

CJRDIUM. VIl; Bivalve, nearly equilateral, equivalve. 
Its animal a Tethys. 

Two teeth near the beak : a larger (placed remote) on each 
fide ; each locking into the oppofite. 

37. Acu- 


Lin. Sjfi^ 1 122. No. 78. 

C. with high ribs radiating from the hinge to the edges ; each rib 
fulcatcd in the middle ; and near the circumference befet with 
large and ftrong procefles, hollowed. One fide of the fliell projeds 
further than the other, and forms an angle. Color yellowifh- 

As large as a fill. The marginal circumference ten inches and 
a half. 

Found ofi^ the Hebrides and Orknies. 

TabA. Jig. 37. ' , , 

, Ecbinatum. 
38. ECHI- 

Lin. Sjft. 1122. No, 79. Faun. Suec. No. 2139, 
Lifi. JngL tab. v.fg. 33. Conch, tab. 324. 

C. leflfer than the fofmer, being little more than fix inches in cir- 
cumference.; the color white •, the ribs echinated higher up-, has 
only fixteen ribs, the former twenty-one ; the fliape rounder. 
Found dead on many of our fiiores. 


Class VI. SHELLS,' 77 

Liu. Sjft, 1 1 22. No. 80. . Ciliare. 

39. Frin- 

C. with a, very brittle (hell, and delicate ; of a pure white ; eigh- 
teen ribs fifing into thinner fpincs. 

Of the fize of a hazel nut. 

Tab. 1. fig. 39. 

Lim.SjJi. 1 123. No. 88. "Lavigatum, 

40. Smooth.^ 

C. of a fub-oval (hape, fomewhat depreffed ; of a deep brown 
color, with obfolete longitudinal firU ; and a few tranfverfal, con- 
cealed by a thin epidermis. 

Circumference fix inches and a half» 

Tab. li. fig. 40. 

Lin. Syfi. 1124. JV^i^.po. Fauu. Suec. No, 2 141. X/)f. Jngl. tab. v. Jig. 34. - ^^/k//. 

41* EoiiLi^ 

C. with twenty-eight depreffed ribs, tranfverfely ftriated j one fide 
more falient than the other. 

Common on all fandy coafts, lodged a little beneath the fand \ 
their place^ marked by a depreffed fpot. Delicious and wholefome 

Tab. 1. fig. ^i. 

q VIII. Its . 

^8 SHELLS. Class Vr. 

MJCTRJ. VIIL Its animal a Tethys. 

Bivalve, unequal fidfd, cquivalve. 

Middle tooth complicated ; with a little concavity on each 
fide; the lateral teeth remote, mutually received into 
each other. 

Stultarum. i'«- ^jft' "26. No. 99. 



M. with femi-tranfparcnt fliells, fmooth, glofly 5 white without % 
purplilh within. 

Size of a hazel nut. 
Tab.Yiu J%. 42. 

Solida. Lin. Sjfl. 1 126. No. loo. Faun. Suec. No. 2x40. Ltfi. JngU tai. vr.fig* 24. 

M. with very ftrong (hells ; in a live ftate, fniooth, white, glofly, 
and marked with a few tranfverfe Jlria. In dead (hells, the 
firi4e appear like high ribs. Vide Jig. 43. A. ^ab. 1. 

Lutraria. Lin. Sjfi. tii6. No. lOi, Faun. Sua, No. z\2^. Lift. Jftgl. tah.X7.fg. 19. 

44* Large. 

M. with an oblong thin (hell ; one fide much extended, and gap^ 
ing; for which reafon Unnaus once placed it among the My^e. 
Breadth five inches ; length two and a half. 


Class VI. SHELLS. 79 

Inhabits the Tea near the mouth of rivers ^ and even fometimes 
within the mouth. 
Tat. lii. fg. 44, 

IX. Its animal a Tethys. DONAX. 

Bivalve, with the frontal margin very blunt. 

Lin* Sjfl* 1 127. No, 105. Faum* Suic. N0, 214Z. Lifi* AngL tai. v. /g. 35. Trunculus* 

Conch, tab. 376. /. 217. 45. YellOW. 

D. with a gloflfy fhell, of a whitiih color tinged with dirty yellow, 
and marked lengthways with many elegant minute ftrU \ the in- 
ikle purple. 

Breadth an inch and a tenth. 

Tab. \w.fig. 45. 

Lin. Sjft. 1 127- No. 107. DnUknlatam 

. 46.PURFLB^ 

C. of a cuneiform fhape ; extremely blunt at one end, ftriated 
like the former, ferrated at the edges 5 color within purple j trai>f- 
verfcly tinged with the fame on the outfide. 
Breadth, a lictle fuperior to the former. 

X. Its 

So SHELLS. Class VL 

rENUS. X. Its animal a Tethys. 

Hinge with three teeth near to each other ; one placed longi- 
tudinally, and bent outwards. 

Mtrcenaria. Lin, Syft. 1131. No. ill. Faun, Suec. No. 2144. Lijf. JngL tab. iv. fg. 22. 

47.C0MMER- Conch, tab.zjl. 


V. With a ftrong, thick, weighty Ihell, covered with a brown 
. epidermis ; pure white within •, (lightly ftriated tranfvcrfely. 

Circumference above eleven inches. 

Thefe arc called in North America Clams ; they differ only in 
having a purple tinge within. Wampum er Indian money is made 
of them *. 

^ah. liii. Jig. 47. 

Eryttma. Lin. Sjfl. II3I« No. 122. Lift. Conch, tab. 284. 

48. Sici- 

V. with a very thick Ihell, marked with high-ridged ribs tranf- 
verfcly ; undulated longitudinally. 

Fig. 48, A. a worn (hell. 

Circumference about five or fix inches. 

Tab.Yw.fig. /^i. 48. A. 

Burnafy*s Trafielsf /* 104. id. 2. 


Class VI. SHELLS, 8i 

X/«« Syfi. 1 134* !/#. 149* Bx9kta* 

49. Anti« 

Y. with orbicular fhdls, with numerous tranfvcrfal fin£\ white, 

Diameter about two inches. 

A. Variety of the fame, marked ftrongly with numerous ^i>, 
and longitudinally with a few fhort yellowilh Unes. Vidi Lift. 
Conch, tab. 292. 293. 

l!ab. liv. fig. 49, A. 7i*. Ivi. fig. 49* 

Lift. Cancb. tai. zZu ^^ofy. 

50. Wkimk- 


V. with thick (hells, marked with rugofe concentric ftrU. 

A. Variety, with y}rr> lefs elevated, and marked with yellowifh 
zigzag lines. Uft. Conch. 282. 

Length, an inch} breadth, an inch and a quarter. 

Tjib. Ivi. fig. 50* 

V. with thin convex orbiculated (hells, of a white color, tinged *^*^* 
with yellow, and marked with thin concentric /r/>i waved at the * 

Size of a hazel nut. 

Tab. Iv. fig. 51. 

V. with thin convex (hells, with a very deep obtufe i?»i//, or bend* ^^'j/Sp, 

^u r ^ 51. A. In- 

Mig on the front. Ikkte^. 

Size of Jthe figure. 

M H^tymouth. 

82 SHELL 9' Class VI* 

JVeymoutb. From the Portland cabinet. 
^ab. Iv. fig. 51, A. 

BoreaUt. Un. Sjjt. 1 134. No. 143. Ltfi. Angl tai. w*fig* aj. &«aJ. hA. Zi3'fiS' •^ 

52. NoR- 


V. with thin ftieHs, much deprefled, marked with flender concen-* 
mt firia. 

Length one inch and a half; breadth near two inches. 

Littirota. Lin. S^ft. 1135. Nq. 147* Fauu. Suio N0. 2146. lifi* Conci. tai. 400. 
53. Letter* /g. 239. 


V. with thick ihelb, marked tranfveriely with fiequent crenulated 
ftriiC^ fometiims fmopther ; of a whitifli color^ ftreaked with lines 
refembh^ng charaAers. In Britijb fpecimens ufually faint; in fo- 
reign very ftrong and elegant.' 

Length an inch and three quarters ; breadth two inches and a 

Tab. Ivii. /^. 53. 

Dtjhrata. Liu. Sjft. w^y No. 1^%. 
54. Fading* 

V. with thin oval fhells, ftriated lengthways, femtpellucid ; rayed 
with purple and white, both within and without. 

Size near an inch and half in> breadth. 

Tab, Ivii. fig. 54. 

V, with 

Class Vt SHELLS. ^ 

V. with dcprcflcd rhomboidal ihells, marked with conccntrfc and Rbmhideu 
very nesLtftrUj of a* pale brown color variegated. ^^|^^ "^"^ 

Length three quarters of an inch ; breadth an inch and three 

V. withovated (hells, ftriated ekgandy from hinge to margin, and o^ata. 
nightly ftriated tranfvcrfely. 5^. Oval. 

Size of a horfe-bean. 

Tat. Ivi. ^g. $6. 

Xlf It$ amin4 ^ Tethm ? • ^iew. 

Shell bivalve equivalve« 
Toeth of the hinge numerous^ iolerted between each others 

Lin. Syft. 1140. JV#. 168. Strlafi Nat. Hift. Cornw. tah. laam.Jig. Ij, 16. Torm/m. 
Lift. Couch, tab. 368. 57. Di«- 

Mytilas MaitbM* apud Die/cor. hi. ii. r. ;• /• 301. touted. 

A. widi a rhomboid fhcH, deeply ftriated from the apex to the 

InhaWts Cornwall. . Found alfo near fF^moutb. 

Tab. Iviii. fig. 57. "^ 

LiM.-^M irij. M^itU. ,liftk'C^hik4iit^7.^^ ^Olycytt^t. 



A. with ti&k.orbicular flieib;; nwl^ilJ^ 

white zigzagged with fcrruginou&i f«ige^'CreAulat«(i. 

M 2 Diameter 




Diameter about two inches. 
Tat. Iviii. Jig. 58^ 

MtubusM^ Lm. SjJI. I14K N§. 184; 

59. SlL* 

A. with unequally triangular (hells ^ fmootb, -pure white witboiitg. 
filvery within ^ margin finely cceaated. 

Size of a pea. 

Tab. Iviii. Jig. 59*' • 

Bmrhi^M. tin* Sjjk 1 14a.. A>. 170.. 
60. Fair- 

A. with oblong (hells faintly ftriated} befet with ^{^ fo ai to* 
appear bearded. 

In England of the fize of a horfe^^beani the foreign fpedmen^ 
much larger.. 

PECrXN^ XH. Its animal a Tbtmys*. 

SCALLOP. Shell bivalve, unequal- 

The hinge toothlels^ having a. (ball ovatedJioUow,. 

€u GasAT*- 

P. with fourteen rays^ very prominent and broad} ilriatcd lengths 

ways above and bdow^ earaequ^L 


Class VI. S » E L E S. H 

Grows to a large fize. Tat. lix* j%* 6i. 

Found in beds by themfelves \ are dredged up, and pickled 
and barrelled for fale. 

The ancients fay, that they have the power of removing them*' 
felves from place to place by vaft fprings or leaps ♦. This fliell 
was called by the Greeks Ktik, by the Lafins PeUen^ and was ufed 
by both as a food ; and when dreiled. with pepper and cummin$» 
was taken medicinally f . 

The elegant figure of the. crouching Venus^ in the Maffei collec- 
tion, is placed fitting in a^fliell of this kind. The fculptor proi- 
hably was caught by the mythology of his. time, that the goddeis 
«rofe from the fea in a fcallop. This perhaps may have been the 
muha venerea oiPUt^^ fo flyled from this circumftance. 

Another fliellhas the fame name, for a diflFerent reafon X^ 

The fcallop is commonly worn by pilgrims on their hat, or the 
cape of their coat, as a mark that they had crofled the fea in their, 
way to the Hefy Land^ or to fome difi;ant obj^ of devotion^ 

£iir.^. ti44t JKp. i86# iyt.Ci$ubitatii€%.J^*u. Ja€§i^fMf» 

&g. Lissia* 

P. with fifteen broad^rays, rounded on the flat fide, and moft 
finely tranfverfely ftriated i angulated on the convex, and ftriated 
lengthways ^ ears nearly equal i concave and finooth on the upper < 

A rare fpecies in (keat Britaim 

£i^* be Jig. 62. 

^ I » 

t,9tt Nh9z, 


86 SHELLS. Ci.a»VL 

^ Both Shells convex* 

Subn/ia. Pcften tenais> fnbrafas» ,siaculofas« circiter 20 ftriis il ajorihoi^ at laeviboi^ dona- 
63* Rfi9« tua. £^* dngUp. 185, /«#« v. >^. 30, 

P. with twenty narrow rays, finely ftriated} ears nearly equal, 
and alfo ftriated. 

A fpecies feldom exceeding two inches and a quarter in length 1 
the breadth nearly the fame. 

A thin Ibell, generally of a fine pale red. 

Tab* Ix. fig. 63. 

Farius. Lhu Sjfi* W^Sk ^#f 199* LiS. C^ndh lot. I?^* A*,!!* 



p. with about thirty echtnated imbricated raya 1 flietk ahnoft 
equally convex ; one ear vaftly larger than the other. 

General kngth two inches and a half ; breadth a little leis» 

Color, a fordid red mixed with white. 

Often found in oyfier-beds, and dredged up with thein« fig. 64^ 

PMfi§ f tin. Sjift. 1146. A#. «00* 

65. WaiTH- Pc&cn aioimns angqftior ineqnalls ftii et i^per, kc 

j«» Lift^ AniU p. I S6. Jot. v* /ir« 3 1 • 

P. with above forty fmall rays ; with unequal ears ; the furface 
always irregpUrljn wa^ or. deformed, aa if by. locnc aoudent ; 
but this appearance regularly maintained. 


Class VI. ^SHELLS. «; 

Length about two inches. 

Colors commonly very brilliant reds. 

Tat. Ixi. fg. 6s» 

P. with one large ftriated ear, with fmooth equal (hells ; eight Ohfiletut. 
obfolete rays ; of a dark purple color. ^^* Work. 

A fmall fpecies three quarters of an inch long. 

Tab, bti. fig. 66. 

P. with unequal ribbed ears 5 the reft of the Ihell entirely fmooth. L^em. 
Very fmall. «7- Smooth. 


Hm. Sfjf, 1146. iV#. 20U Giahr* 

68. FuR« 


p. with a very thin IhelU fifteen faint rays; equal ears. The 
inner fide of the fhells marked with rays, 'divided by a fingle 

Angkfea. A fcarce fpecies. Small. 

• XIII. Its animal a Tethys. OSrjt£j. 

. Shell bivalve, roughly plated 00 the outfide* OYSTER. 

£/«• Sj/f. 1 1 48. JV#. 211. Faun. Sitic. No. 2 149* Ltfi. Angh iai. iv./g, i6. EMis. 

69. EoiBlB* 

O. commonly of an orbicular form, and very rugged. A 

dcfcription of fo well-known a ihell is needlefs. Varies in fize 

5 w 

88 JS H E L L S. Gi-ass VI. 

in different places. This is figured with an Anomia. oa it. 
No. 70. B. 

Britain has been noted for oyfters from the time of Jnvenal'^y 
'who fatyrizing an epicure, fays, 

Circ^is nata forcnt, an 
Lucrinum ad Saxum, Rutupinove edita fundo, 
Oftrea, callcbat primo deprcndcrc morfu. 

He, whether Circe^s rock his oyfters bore. 
Or Lucrine lake, or diftant RuhborougVs (horc 
Knew at firft taftc. 

The luxurious Romans were very fond of this filh, and had 
their layers or ftews for oyfters, as we have at preient. Sergius 
Orata -f was the firft inventor, as early as the time of L. Crajfus 
the orator. *He did not make them for the fake of indulging his 
appetite, but through avarice, and made great profits from them. 
Orata got great credit for his Lucrine oyfters 5 for, fays P/rVy, the 
Britijh were not then known. 

The antients eat them raw, and fometimes roafted. They had 
alfo a cuftom of ftewing them with mallows and docks, or with 
fifli, and efteemed them very nouriftiing J. 

Britain ftill keeps its fuperiority in oyfters over other countries. 
Moft of our coafts produce them naturally, and in fuch places 
they are taken by dredging, and are become an article of con> 


Satyr, iv. F. 140. f Plin. Nat. Hift. lih. ix. c 54. 

X Jthenam^ lit. iii. /. pa* 


Class VL SHELLS. «p 

mcrcc, both raw and pickled. The very fhelb, calcined, become 
an ufeful medicine as an abforbent. In common with other fliells^ 
prove an excellent manure. 

Stews or layers of oyfters are formed in places, which nature 
never allotted as habitations for them,. Thofe near Colcbefter haw 
been long famous; at prefent there are others, that at left rival the 
former, near the mouth of the Thames. The tfyjt^s, or their fpats, 
are brought to convenient places, where they improve in tafte and 
Gzc. It is an error to fuppofe, that the fine green obferved m 
oyfters taken from artificial beds, is owing to copperas ; it being 
notorious how deftrudive rhe fubftance or the folution of it is to 
all fifh. I cannot give a better account of the caufe, or of the 
whole treatment of oyfters, than what is prcferved in the learned 
Bilhop Sprains Hiftory of the Roval Society, from p. 307 to 
509. , ^ 

* In thetnonth of May the oyfters caft their fpaun, (which the 

* dredgers call their fpats ;) it is like to a drop of candle, and 

* about the bignefs of a halfpenny, 

* The /pat cleaves to ftones, old oyfter-lhells, pieces of wood, 
« and fuch-like things, at the bottom of the fea, which they call 

* 'Tis probably conjefturcd, that the /pat in twenty-four hours 
< begins to have a (helL 

*In the month of Afay, the dredgers (by the law of the Ad- * 

* mifalty court) have liberty to catch all manner of oyfters, of 
-• what fize foever. 

* When they have taken them, with a knife they gendy raifc 
^ ^he fmall brood from the culicb^ and then they throw the cultcb 

* in again, to prcfcrve the ground for the future^ unlcfs they be 

J^ * fo 

50 S H E L L S, Class VI. 

* fo newly fpat, that they cannot be fafely fevered fram the cullcbi 
^ in that cafe they arc permitted to take the ftone or Ihell, &c. 

* that th^.fpaf is upon, one flicU having many times twenty 

* fpafs. 

« After the month of Afcy, it is felony to carry away the cul^cb^ 

* and puniihable to take any other oyfters, unlefs it be thofe of 

* fize, (that is to fay) about the bignefs of an hal^-crown piece^ 

* or when the two (hells being (hut, a fair (hilling will ratUc be* 

* tweeii them. 

« The places where thefe oyfters are chiefly catcht, are called 
' the PmuBumbam^ Maldtn^ and Colne waters % the latter taking 

* its name from the river of Colne^ which pafleth by Cohe-Cbefter^ 
^ gives 'the name to that town, and runs into a creek of the fea, at 

* a place called the Hytbe^ being the fuburbs of the town* 

* This brood and other oyfters they carry to creeks of the fea,. 

* at Brickel'Seay Merfy^ Langno^ FringregOy IVivenbOy Tolejburj^ 

* and Saltcoafe^ and there throw them into the channel, which 

* they call their beds or layers, where they grow and fatten, and 
« in two or three years the fmalleft hrood will be oyfters of the fize 

* aforefaid. 

« Thofe oyfters which they would have green, they put into 

* pits about three feet deep in the falt-majihes, which are over* 

* flowed only at fpring-tides, to which they have fluces, and let 

* out the fault- water until it is about a foot and half deep. 

^ Thefe pits, from fome quality in the foil co-operating with the 

* heat of the fun, will become green, and communicate their 
« colour to the oyfters that are put into them in four or five days, 

* though they commonly let them continue there fix weeks or two 
« months^ in which time thef will be of a dark green,. 

• To 

Class VI. .SHELLS. 9« 

* To prove that the fun operates in the greening, Tokjbury pits 

< will green only in fummer *, but that the earth hath the greater 

< power, Brickel'Sea pics green both winter and fummer : and for 

* a further proof, a pit within a foot of a greening-pit will not 
« green ; and thole that did green very well, will in time lofe 

* their quality, 

< The oyfters, when the tide comes in, lie with their hollow 
« (bell downwards, and when it goes out, they turn on the other 
^ fide ; they remove not from their place, unlefs tn cold weather, 

* to cover themfelves in the Oufe. 

^ The reafon of the fcarcity of oyfters, and confequently of their 

* dearnefs, is, becaufe they are of late years bought up by the 

* Dutch. 

* There are great penalties, by the Admiralty court, laid upon 
<• thofe that fifli out of thofe grounds which the court appoints, 

* or th&t deftroy the cultch^ or that take any oyfters that are not of 

* fize, or that do not tread under their feet, or throw upon the 

* ihore, a fifli which they call a Fivt-finger •, rcfembling a fpur- 
^ rowel, becaufe that fifti gets into the oyfters when they gape^ 

* and fucks them out. 

* The reafon why fuch a penalty is fet upon any that fhall de- 

* ftroy the eultcbj is, becaufe they find that if that be taken 
^ away, the Oufe will increafe, . and the mufcles and cockles will 

* breed there, and deftroy the oyfters, they having not whereon to 
f ftick their j^tf/. 

« The oyfters are fick after they have fpat j but in June and 
« July they begin to mend, and in Auguft they are perfc<aiy well : 

* AsTBRiAS ilacMtf the common* 6ea Star. 

N 2 « the 

^1 SHELLS*, Class VL 

« the male oyftcr is black-Jick, having a black fubftancc in the fin j. 

* the female wbite-ftcky (as they term it) having a milky fubftancc 

* in the fin. They arc fait in the pits, falter in the layers, but 

* falter at fca.* 

To this I beg leave to join a fprt of prefcnc ftate of this article, 
borrowed from the 84th page of the Hiftory of Rocbejler^ in 
i2mo, publifhed in ijyS. 

* Great part of the inhabitants of Stroud are fupported by the 
« fiiheries, of which the oyfter is moft confiderable. This is con- 
« duded by a company of free dredgers, cftabliflied by prefcrip- 

* tioHj but fubjc6t to the authority and government of the mayor 

* and citizens of Rocbefter. In 1729 an aft of parliament was 
^ obtained, for the better management of this fifiiery, and for 

* confirming the jurifdi£lion of the faid mayor and citizens, and 

* free dredgers. The mayor holds a court of admiralty every 
^ year, to make fuch regulations as fliall be neceflary for the well 
^ conducting this valuable branch of fiihery. Seven years appren- 

* ticeihip entitles a perfon to the freedom of this company. All 
« pcrfons catching oyfters, not members of the fifhery, arc liable 

* to a penalty. The rompany frequently buy brood or fpat from 

* other parts, which they lay in this river, where they foon grow 
^ to maturity. Great quantities oi thefe oyfters are fent to Lorn 

* don\ to Holland^ fVeftpbaUay and the adjacent countrits. 

XIT« Bivalve^ 

CtAssVk S H E L U S*. 


XIV. Bivalve, incquivalve. JNOMIA. 

One valve perforated near the hinge v affixed by that per- 
foration to feme other body^ 

lUn. Sjfii 1 150. No. 218. L^Jt. CoMcb. tab. 2^4. A- 3^- Bpbippium, 


A. >¥ith the habic of an oyfter; the one fide convex, the other 
flat ; perfonated, adherent to other bodies^ often to oyfter-Aells^. 
by a llrong tendinous ligature \ color of infide perlaceous. 

Size near two inches diameter. 

^ah. Ixii. Ihewd^ the exterior fide of the fhell; and the 
mterior of the upper valve adhering to an oyiier*, 

iS«. Sjift. 1151. No. Z2U. S^uammuU. 

71. Smaxl} 

A. with fRells refemWing the fcalcs of fifli ; very delicate and 
filvery. Much flatted. Perforated. Very fmall. 

Adheres to oyft'ers,. crabs, and lobfters, and fhclh. 

The foffil fpecies of the Anomia genus are uncommonly nume- 
rous in this ifland, in our chalk -pits and limeftone-quarries \ but 
are foreign to the work in hand. The reader who wilhes to be 
acquainted with their appearance, may fatisfy himfelf, by con- 
fulting Liftet's. Hiftory of: Shells, appendix to the 3d book, tab. 
447,&c. and Hift. an. Jngl. tab. viii. and ix. Plot's Hift. Oxfordr 
J^e^ tab* iii. and his Hiftory of Staffordjhirt^ tab. xi. ^ 

X^ Its 

94 SHELLS.. Class VL 

AfrmuSi. XV. Us animal an Asctot a. 

kJUSSEL. Bivalve j often affixed to fotnc fubftance by a beard, 

Hinge without a tooth, marked by a longitudinal hollow 

Mu^o/uff Lh. Sjfi* 1 156. A*. 249, Lifi. AngL tai. iv.j^. tu 

7a Rugged. 

M. ymth 2l brittle Ihell, very rugged, and in ftiapc njoft irregular -, 
ufually oblong, and rounded at the ends. 

Length near an inch. Color whitilb. 

Always found lodged in Hmejlone. The outfide generally tippear 
honey-combed J but the apertures are too fmall for the (hell to 
pafsthrough, without breaking into the cell they are lodged in. 
Multitudes are found in the fame ftone : but each has a fcparate 
apartment, with a different external fpiracle. 

Tab. Ixiii. Jig. 72. 

Eilulis, Lifu Syft. 1 157. K9. 253. Faun* Suec. Np. 2156. Lifi. AngL tah.vr. fg. z%. 

73. Hdisle* 

M. with a ftrong (hell, (lightly incurvated on one fide : angulated 
on the other. The end near the hinge pointed ; the other rounded. 
Tab. Ixiii. Jig. 73. 

When the epidermis is talcen off, is of a deep blue color. 

Abundance of fmall pearls, called feed-pearls^' sntxt till of late 
procured from this fpecies of muflcl, for medical purpofes •, but 
I believe they are now difufed, fince crabs-claws and the like have 


Class VI. S H £ , L L S. 

been difcovcred to be as efficacious, and a much cheaper ablbr* 


Found in immenfe beds, both in deep water ; and above low- 
water mark. A rich food, but noxious to maAy conftitutions. Af- 
feft with fwellings, blotches, &c. falfcly attributed to -the pea- 
crab. The remedy oil, or fait and water. 

'Hzfraudeniur glorii fua littora. I muft in jufticc to Lanca^ 
finre add, that the fineft muffels are thofe called Hambleton Hookers^ 
from a village in that county. They arc' taken out of the fea,. 
and placed in the river Wfer^ within reach of the tide, where they 
grow very fat and delicious* 

M. very crooked on the fide, near the end ; then greatly dilated, Tncur^vatus. 
and covered with a thick rough epidermis. Within has a violet ^^*^ C*oo*«- 

Found on the coaft of Anglefea^ near Priefibolme-, ufually an 
inch and an half long. 

Tab. Ixiv. /^. 74. 

M. with a dclfcatc tranfparent fhell, moft elegantly rayed length- Pittuddui. 
ways, with purple and blue y like the former in Ihape, but more ^^^ ^«^^^-' 
oval. Commonly Ihorter than two inches. 

Angkfea. Found fometimes ia oyfter-bcds ; fometimes in trowl- 
kig over flutchy bottoms. 

Tab^ Ixiii. Jig. 75. 

M. with a ftrong fcell, and the fpacc oppofite to the hin|^ deeply VmbHiMut^ 
inflefted or umbUicatcA ^^""t!*'"* 

K> The 


96 SHELLS- Class VL 

The forin nearly oval. The length fomeiimcs five inches. 
A rar? fpecics, and new. Sometimes dredged up oS Priefibolme 
ifland, Anglefea. Difcovered by the reverend Mr, Hugh Davies, 
The pea-crab found in this fpecies of a larger fize than ufaal. 
Tab. Ijcv. fig, 76. 

Curtus. M. with a ihort, ventricofe, obtufe fticH, of a dirty yellow 

76.A.SHORT 4 
' color. 

Size of the figure. 

Weymouth. From the Portland cabinet. 

. Tab. Ixiv. fig. 76. A. 

Modulus, Lin.SjJ}. 1158. AV 2 56, Z//?. Conch, tab. JS^. /y. 195. 

77. Great. 

M. with a (Irong (hell, with a i^lunted upper end ; one fide an- 
gulated near the middle ^ from thence dilating towards the end, 
which is rounded. 

The greatcrfl: of Britijh muflcls. Length from fix to fcven 

Lies at great depths. Often feizes the bait of the ground lines^ 
and is taken up with the hooks. 

Tab. Ixvi. fig. yy. , 

Cygnevs^ Lin, SyJI, 1158. JVa. 257. Ltft. Angl. App. tab. i.fig. 3. 

M. with a thin brittle Ihell, very broad and convex, marked with 
« ccncentric ftriac. Attenuated towards one end j dilated towards 

che other. Decorticated about the hinge. 


Class VL S H E L L S^ ^f 

Color^ dull green. 

Length fix inches ; breadth three and a half. 
Inhabits frefli waters. Pearls are foiind in this and the follow* 
ing fpecies. 
Tat. Ixvii. fg. y8. 

Lin. Sjft. Nff, 258. FoKM. Suic. Ni* 2158* Lijf. AngU i§h. i. fig. 2* AmMiwi. 

79* Duci;. 

M. with a ihell lefs convex, and more oblong than the laft. Verjr 
brittle, and femi-tranfparent. Space round the hinges like tl^ 

Length about live inches \ breadth two and a quarter. 
' Inhabits frefh waters. 

Crows feed on thefe mu0els ; and alfo on dificrent ihdl-fi(h. 
It is diverting to obferve, that when the fhell is too hard for their 
bills, they will fly with it to a great height, drop the fhell on a 
rock, and pick out the meat, when the Ihell is fradured by the 

Tab. Ixviii. fig. 79. 

XVI. Its animal a Slxjo, PlI^NA. 

Bivalve, fragil, furniihed with a beard. Gapes at one end. ^^CRE. 
Hinge without a tooth.. 

P. with a very thin femi-pellucid whitilh ihell, mod opake near Frmgifu. 
to the apex. Marked on the furface with longitudinal flendcr ^®*8*"'^^» 

O ribs. 

^ B t t L 9. tlA^tf. 

ribs, roughened with concave fcales; and the whblc trav^ed 
by innumerable MtjMd. 

* Ih youhgl!teH4, thfc titer antf f«l« arc afaroft obfotete. The 
valves of Icfier tranfverfe diameter. 

The.largeft about fWe iiichea and a half lottgv and three and a. 
quarter broad in the broadeft part. The figure is of a broadec 
fpecimen ihan u&al* 

Dredged up at fVeymotab. Ffom the Portland cabinet. 

^ub.ViX. J^. So. 

luginf. rfaw fpecimens of fame vafl: Pimi^^ found among the fartW 

ti. GiiEAY. jj^i^f^^^^ i^ j^p colfaaioii of l>o«Dr/Sr4i*er, at Nkffa. TAey 
were very rugged on the oucQde, but I cannot recoiled whether 
thdf ^iTett ctf the kind fdUod k the Moditsnrdtaan. or ^^ iriiMU. 



f^t^y% s H 1^ Ji. I, % ,» 


With a regular {jpiicj' 

XVII. Its animal a Shvc. CtTRJBA. 

Shdl fub-oval, blunt at catfh end. GOWRIE ' 

The aperture the length of the fliell» longitudinal, linear. 

Lin. Sjft^ li8o. No. 364. Lift. Jn^. tmi% m. fy. 17, Coneb* 4mS. 706, 707. PuBtnlmu 
fig. 56 and 57* ««• Com. 


C. widi numerous ftria?, fome bifurcated. Variea with having 
diree bmwn ^otaon tte faack» 

^ab. bcx. j%. 82. 

This genus is called CypraOj and Vemreo^ from its being pecu- 
liarly dedicated to Venus \ who was faid tahave endowed a (hcllctf 
this genus with the powers of a Remoray fo as to impede thecourfe 
of the fliip which was fent by Pmander^ tyrant of Cormtb^ vvifh 
orders to caftrate the young nobility of C^cyra\ 


10(5 S H E t^ L* S, Class Vi; 

BULLA. XVIII. Its animal a Slug. 

^^^^^- Shell fub^val. 

Aperture oblong, fmooth. 
One end a little convoluted* 

Ligmaris^ Lin. Sjfi. 1 184. Lift* Cgtui* oA. 714* >^* 7 U 

83. Woop; 

B. of an oval form, and ftriated tranfverfely. Is narrower towards 
one end, which is a little umbilicated. Of a dirty color, like 
fome woods, whence the trivial name. The infide Of the flieU 
vifible to the very end, through the columella. 
Length about two inches. Tab. \xx*fig* 83. 

Amputta. Lin. Sjft. 1183. JV^. 378* 

84. Ob- 


B* with a brittle (hell, more obtufe at the end ; and the inner fide 
lapping over the columella^ fo as to render it inviliblc. 

Pofiibly a young (bell of the B. Ampulla i 

Found near WeymatUh. 

CjUndraxta* Lift. Concb. tat. 714* ftg^ 70* 
85. Cylim- 


B. white, cylindric, a little umbilicated at the end» 
About twice the fizc of a grain of wheat. 
^Tab. hx, fig. 85« 

B. with 

Class VL 




B* with one ^d much produced, and jfufiform; 
The aperture very patulous, 
fFeymoufk. From the Portland eabincb 
Tat. Ixz, Jig. 85, A. 


• Its animal a Slug» 
Aperture narrow, without a beak^ 
Columella pleated. 


th. Sjfi^ 11 87* JV#. 394* Lifi. Cmcb. tsi* 835* 

V. exa&ly oval ; acuminated at each end; yith a fingle fold near 
the mouth, or upper part of the columella. With five fpires. Stri« 
ated fpiraliy. Fak red, with white fafd^. 



86« OvAU 

y. With a very thin brittle fliell, with two fmall ^ires. 
Inhabits the ifle of "Jona^ or YCohmh^kiU 
Tai. Ixxl Jig. 87. 

87. jona; 

[XX, It$ 

io\ 9 H ]? L t &, CM»YI. 

SUCCINUM. XX. Its -animal a Stuo. , 

^ ' Aperture QvaU eodiqg \a a ihort p|naU 

Pv//«/. £/>N ^. 1301. Na^ 458. GuabtrU tab. 44. >^. N. £^. Cwci. tsti* 971* 

88. Browk. ylfjf. 26. 

B. with five fpires ftriated, waired, knd tuberoolatdft Aperture 
wrinkled ; upper .pait TCpUcated. 
Length five-eijghths of an inch. 

LapHbisi ^LtM, Syjf. 1202* Ifo^ 467. FittM* Stiic. No* ti6u Lift* AngU iai. iii. /g» j. 6* 
89. Masst. Liji, Cpnch^ tui. 965, 

B. with about five fpires, often obfo]ete ; iilfide of the moi(th 
flightly toothed. A very ftrong thick (hell, of a whitifli color. 

A variety yellow ; or fafciated with yellow on a white ground; 
or fulcated fpirally, and fometimes reticulated. 

Set figures 89. tab. Ixxii. 

In many, which I fufped): to be (hella not arrived at full 
growth, the lip is thin and cultrated. 

Length near an inth'and a half. 

Inhabits (in vail abundance) rocks near low-water mark. 

This is one of the EngUJb Ihells"^ that produces the purple dye, 
analogous to the purpura of the antiencs : our (hell has been made 
ufe of as an obje£b of curiofity. 


Class Vr. $ tt £ L L §. wj 

The antient has been long Gnce fiSperfeded by the introduftion 
of the infcfl: Coccus CaSi^ or the Cochinecl beetle. The fhells were 
of the genus of Murex^ mentioned by Linnaus^ pp. iii/^ 1215* 
But one was a fort of Buccinum. Pliny defcribcs both *• The 
finelt was the Tjrian. 

f Tyrfoque ardebat Muricc lana j* 

A ftrong ei^reffion of Virply who defcribes the cloch» 

* Glowing with the Tyrian Murex.' 

The fpecies of ihells are found in various parts of the MeditiT" 
ranean. Immenfe heaps of them are to be fcen about Tarentum f 
to this day, evincing one place where this precious liquor was^ 

The proceis of obtaining the EngUJb Purpura is well defcribed 
by Mr. William Cole^ of Briftoly in 1684, in the following words j:, 

* The (hells being harder than moft of other kinds, are to be 

* broken with a fmart ftroke with a hammer, on a plate of iron, 

* or firm piece of timber, (with their mouths downwards) fo as« 

* not to crulh the body of the fiflr within ; the broken piece* 

* being picked off, there will appear a white vein, lying tranf- 
*^ verfcly in a little furrow or cleft, next to the head of the filh,. 

* which muft be digged out with the ftiff point of a horfe-hair 
•^ pencil, being made Ihort and tapering. The letters, figures, 
^ or what elfe (hall be made on the linnen, (and perhaps filk too) 
f will prefently appear of a pleafant light-green cgfor, and if 

* LtB. hi. €. 36. t J9«fMr JUtik/tVt Twvth. f* 174^ 

t fh. Tr. Jbr. ii. 826^ 

a ^ placcdl 

104 SHELL S; Class VI. 

* fdaced in the fun, will change into the following colours, i. e. if 
^ in winter, about noon^ if in the fummer, an hour or two after 

* fun-rifing^ and fo much before fetting ; for in the heat of the 
^ day, in fummer, the colours will come on fo faft, that the fuc- 

* cefllon of each colour will fcarcely be diftinguiflied. Next to 

* the firft light-green, it will appear of a deep-green, and in few 
^ minutes change into a fea-green, after which, in a few minutes 

* more, it will alter into a watchet-blue -, from that, in a little 

* time more, it will be of a purpli(h-red ; after which, lying an 
^ hour or two, (fuppofing the fun idill Ihining) it will be of a 

* very deep purple-red, beyond which the fun can do no more. 

^ But then the laft and moft beautiful colour, after waihing in 

* fcalding water and foap, will (the matter being again put into 

* the fun or wind to dry) be of a fair bright crimfon, or near to 

* the prince's colour, which afterwards, notwithftanding there is 

* no ufc of any itiptick to bind the colour, will continue the fame, 

* if well ordered ; as I have found in handkerchiefs,, that have 

* been wafhed more than forty times ; only it will be fomewhat 
« allayed, from what it was, after the firft wafhing. While the 

* cloth fo writ upon lies in the fun, it will yield a very ftrong and 

* fcetid finell, as if garlick and afafalida were mixed together,' 

Undatum. Lin. Syfi, 12C4. No. 475. Fauu, Suec. No. 2163. Lift. JngU taL iii. Jfg. u 
90. Waved. Lift. Conch, tab. gSz^ftg. 14. 

B. with fcven Tpires, fpirally ftriatcd, and deeply and tranfverfely 

Length three inches. 

Inhabits deep water. 

Tab. Ixxiii. fg. 90. 

6 B. Sm 

Class VL SHELLS. z«5 

B. Lerotraae ftriitam et vndliitiuii. Lifim AngLfi I57« uh. m.fig. 3. itriatum, 

B. with cfght fpires, with elevated firiif^ tindttlatcd near the apcxr 
Length near four inches. 
^ah.hiyas. fig. ^u \ 

Lim. Sjji. 1204. iV#. 476. Lifl. Ciiub. imb* 966. fig. ZU Xetictthaum* 

9^. Rbti- 


B. witli fpires fcarccjy raifed, and ftrongly reticulated ; of a deep« 
brown color, and of anoblong oval form. The aperture white, 
glolTy, and denticulated. 

Size of a hazel-nut. 

Tak. Ixxii. fig, 9a. 

B. with five fpiresy ftriatedfpiraOy; ribbed tranfverfely. Mi^ma. 

Size, lefs than a pea. ^3- Smalu 

Found alfo in Norway. Vide AS. Nidr^ tonit iv, /^. iS^ 
Tab. Ixxix. 

XXI. Its 


STROMBVS XXI. Its animal a Stuc. ' 
Shell univalve, fpiral. 

The opening much dilated, and the lip expanding, pro-^ 
duced into a groove. 

Fis Pelitani. Lin, Sjft. 1207. Nc. 490. tauit^ Suic^ Nc* 2164: Lift* Ccncb* tabM.Z66^fgi 

94. Convo- mi; 


Str. with ten fpires, tuberculated along their ri(%es, with the lip 
expanding and digitated. The fpires end in a moft exquilite 
point. Length about twa inches. Extent of the expanfe an incb 
and a quarter. 
I'ab. Ixxv. fig. 94* 

HUREX. ^ XXIL Its animal a Slug. 

The aperture oval; the beak narrows into a tenal orgutter> 
a little afcending. 

Ertnacms. Liu. $jft..i2o6» N^. 526. GMoliiiri.tai^^g, fig. H«- 

M. with an angular fhell, furrounded with tubular ribs; eacb 
rib ending with its mouth on the angle. Confifts of fix fpires on. 
the whole ; a moft rugged (hell. The aperture exaftly oval ; the 
gutter or canal covered. 

Length near two inches. 

%ah ^Ixxvi. fig. ^s* 

M. withi 

Class VI. SHELLS. 107^ 

M. with five or fix fpires^ the body ventricofe : the fpircs rifing Carinatut. 
into angulated ridges. The aperture femicircular, la'tkd!°"* 

Length near four inches. 

From the Portland cabinet. 

Tab. Ixxvii. Jig. 96. 

tin. Svfi. lilt. No, cc8. Guattierif tab. 46* E. Faun. Suec. No. 2l6j. iiffitspuu. 

^7. An- 

M. with eight fpires finely ftriatedj the firft very ventricofe. 
Color a dark dirty yellow. Length three inches and a half; 

£/>. ^. 1222. iATff. 559, Faun* Suec% No. 2\66* Lifi.AngUtaW\\\.fig^\. • DtJ^t&tit. 

- 98. Desfi* 


M. with eight fpires. The firft large, ventricofe, and produced ; 
the others mofe prominent than thofe of the preceding. Striated 
and fomewhat rugged. The outfide white, the infide glofly 
and yellow. 

Length near five inches. 

Inhabits the deep fea. Dredged up in plenty with oyfters. Eaten 
by the poor ; but oftener ufed ior baits for cod and ray. 
. TaK Ixxviii. fig. 98. 

Lin. Sjft. 1244. No. 565. Lift. AngU tai^ uufg^ 4* Concb.iab. 913. fig. 5. Comeus^ 


M. with a narrow oblong fhell of eight ftriated fpires. Snout much 
produced. Color pure white, covered. with a brown tpidtrmis. 

Pa • Length 

>o8 S H . K L L S. CtAit^» 

Length near three inches, 
Tai. Ixxvi. ^. 99. 

C,jnuut, M. with sm oblong flicll of fix fpiresi neatlf ribbed. Vide taK 

Anglefea. IrAoAnts ^b Nonoof. Jff Nidr. torn, m tiA. i6k 
fig. 26- 

Atminrntuj. M- With a narrow^ oblong fhdl, acumiaated fpircs,, fibbcd». Vide- 

loi. Sharp. ^ . 1 . 
tap. Ixxix. 


jyinllmui? Lin.SjJI. 1226. iVi. 578. 
I02. Short* 

A fpecies offered with doubts; Perhaps accidentally nmtilate^ 
Let the critical conchyliologilt confult tab% Lnux. '"" 


XXHL It9i 

p^ifcss VI» 5 H ^ L L S; f09 

XXni. Its animal a Siva; TROCBUt^ 

Shdl conic. '^^^' 

Aperture fub-triangiifair* 

MtM* Sjfi. 1231* N9. C99« Lift. CoMck tmi. 6l6« Nb. i« £j/f. jf$t^L ttA* iil* Zixiphinus. 
fig. 14, Fiws. f«rr« JVir* 2168* 103. Livx»^ 

Tr« with a iharp apex, imperforated bottom ; with zfiria elevated* 
above the reft. Each is imooth. The color livid,, much fpotted 
with deep redl 

STtf^. Ixxx* Jig. 103. 

Um. Sjift. 1250. JVir. 598*. C9mJMt. 

104. Co* 

Tr. with an imperforated bafe, and a prominent line along the 
i^ires. Scarcely diftin^l from the laft. 
Tab. Ixxx. fig. 104. 

Trochtts pyramidalisparvasy robenimaafafeiis crebris exafperatat* Lift. Concbi ExaJ^atm. 
Uh. 616. fii. 2. lOs.RouoB 

I am unacquainted with this fpecies ; fo refer the reader to Ufiir^ 
who defcribes it as above \ and marks the figure with A. as an 
EngUjb IhelL 



Umbilicaris. Lin, Syft. 1229. No. 592. Lift. Contb, tab. 641* fg* 3I9 32. Lift. AHgh uh. iii. 
lo6, Umbi- fg, 15. 


Tr. with a perforated bafe, and of a convex conic form ; dirtjr 
white waved with purple. Varies tnuc^h in colors, 

A mofl: common ihell on all our Ihores. 

Tab. Ixxx. jSf. 106. 

Cinernrius. Lin* Syft. 1229. No. 590. 
io6*. CiK«- 


T. with a perforated bafe -, fpires a little prominent. Of a cine- 
reous color, (triped obliquely. 

Size of a pea, 


Magus. Lfn.Sjft. 1228. iVi?. 585. 

107.TuBElt- , 

Tr. with a perforated bafe ; fdmcwhat dcpreflcd: ftriated; with 
the ridges of the fpires rifing into blunt diftindl tubercles. Color 
white, ziz-zagged with red. 

When the upper coat is taken off, the next is of a rich mother- 
of-pearl color. 


TabAxyci. fig. 107. ; 




Minute> Conic, livid. Temftris. 

A new fpecics, difcovcred in the mountains of Cumherlandy by 
Mr. Hudfon. 

Tab. Ixxx. fg. loi. 

X3^IV* Its animal a Sluct; rURSO. 

Aperture round. • WREATH'^ 

• Vcntricole* 

lin^ Sjfi* 1^2* No. 607. Lift. JmgL tth. m^fig* p.- tarn. Sttu. Nc^ 2169. LiUtreus. ^ 

109. Pbrri* 


T. with fivefpires, the firft ventricofe, ill younger fubjefts ftriated 
^irally \ in the old foiooch, and of a dufky color. 

TabAxxxx. fig. 109. 

Abundant on moft rocks, far above low-water mark. The 
Swedifi) peafants believe, that when thefe (hells creep high up the 
rocks, they indicate a dorm from the fouth. 

They arc called PerriwinkUs^ are fold commonly in London^ 
and eaten by the poor; as they arc in moft parts of the kingdom. 

Lifi. JngU tab. ii. fig. 5* rumidus. 

T. with five tumid fpires, the firft ventricofcy and all moft ele- 
gantly ftriated ; of a pale-red coloiv 

10 ' A race 

ux SHELLS, CtAssVI. 

A rare (hell. Inhabits woods in Camhridge/bire^ and foone other 
counties in Engknid. 
Tab. Ixxxii./^. no. 

*• Taper. 

CUthrus. lig, SjJL 1237. No. 6ji. Fmm. Smu N$4 2170. LiJ. ComcL tai. 588. Jtg. ^u 

T. with a uper Ihell of eight fpires, diilinguiflied by ekvated di« 
vifionsy nmning from the aperture to the apex. 

, A. A variety > Ptiilucid ; ridges very thin. 

Tfaefe are analogous to that curious and expensive fliell tke 

ruUrcmlaia. X. With about twclve fpifes of a dulky color, finely tuberculated. 
j>Ei,/ ' From the coaft of Northumberland. 
Tab. Ixxxii. fg. ^i 1 1. 

DupUeaius. Lin. Sjft. 1239. ^.645* ^Ilifi* Angh tab* vi.fg* J* 
ai2. DouB« 

T. With a ftrong taper (hell, each fpire marked with two prominent 
JlrU. Has about twelve fpires. 

Found by Doftor Lift^ at Scarborough^ who lays it was five 
inches long. 

Tab. hcxxi. Jig. iii. 


Class VI. SHELLS. it} 

LiM, Sjjf. tiigt N9. 64$. Sit. Mm/, iii. tmi. Ivi. Jig. 40. Tirehm. 

Lift. JitgL tib* viufii^ 8. Fmm* Smc* iV#. 2171. ii3«Auobr« 

T. with a taper fhell of twelve fpires^ ipiraUy ilriated. 
Tai. \xxxufg. 113. 

T. with eight fpircs, ftriated tranlVerfcly ; white. « -rf/^w- 

TakAxxix. 114-White. 

T. with eight fmooth fpires, nearly obfolete. L^vif. 

Tai.lxxix. V iisSMooTH 

Both about a third of an inch long. Found on the (hores of 


Liu* Sjft. 1250. No* 650. FauM. Suic* N9. Lift., JngL tab* ii. Jig. lu Ftrvirfuf^ 

116. Ri- 


T. with eleven fpires of a duflcy color. The mouth turned a 
contrary way to mofl; others of the genus. 

Length four-tenths of an inch ; very taper. 

Found in mofles, efpecially among the Hypna. 

Tab. Ixxxii. Jig. 116. 

LiM. Sjft. 1249. No. 649. Lift. Conch, tab. \l.ftg. m^* Bidens* 

117. Bi- 


T. at firft fight to be diftinguiflied from othersof this genus by 
two teeth in the aperture. Agrees with the lafl; in the contrary 

Q^ turn 

114 S H E L L & Class VI. 

turn of the fpircs, which are twelve in number^ and of a duiky 
.' ^ Tab. Ixxxi. 

Aiu/corttm. Lim. Sjfi. 1249. No* 6; I. Faun. Suec* ATf. 2173. Li/* AmiU /«^. it. fig. 6. 
118. Mosf« C#«r^ fsi. 41* /g. mn. 

T. qf an oval fliape, of the fize of a grain of white niuftard« With 
'*'' * four fpires, very fliining and brittle. 

Found with the Perverfus. 
Tat. Ixxxii. fig. 118. 

Frfiimtuu Baccioam exi)(<ittin fafcutom U ndlatdnh 
119. Pa«- Lift. C$mi. tab. 19. ftg. 14. 


T.with fix fpires ; white, marbled or fafciated with black. 
Length half an inch. 

Very frequent in AngUfea^ in fandy foils near the coafts. 
Tab. Ixxxil fig. 119, 

Vl<o^^ T. with four fpires, the firft ventricofe ; of a deep brown color ^ 

ia«. UtTA. apertureovaL 

Size of a grain of wheat. 
. Tab. Ixxxvi. fig. \%o. 

Inhabits the Viva LaSuca on the ihores of Flintjhire. 

XXV. Its 

Class VL SHELLS. X15 

XXV. Its animal a Slvo. BELIX. 

Shell fpiral, fub-pcllucid. ^^^^ 

Semi-lunar aperture. 

* DepreilecL 

Liu* ^. 1241* JV#. 656. Lift. JhiU tab* ii*>%« 14* Fatm* Smc. if*. 2174. Lafitida. 

121. Rock. 

Sn. with five fpires, externally carinated or deprefled to an edge. 
Umbilicated ; of a deep brown color. 

A land flieU. Inhabits clefts of rocks. 

l^ah. Ixxxiii. fig. 121. 

Lin. Sjft. 1242. N9. 658. Lift. A^h tab* Ti^fti* 13. Guabim, tab. iii. ftg. Q. JlhiHa. 
Faun. Suec. No* 2175. 122. GitRY. 

Sn. with five fpires rounded on the outfide. Thin, prettily fafci- 
ated along the fpires with brown and white. Deeply umbilicated. 

Inhabits dry Tandy banks. 

Tab^lxxKVifig. 122. 

Lin. Sjft. 1242^ N0. 662. Lift. Jugl. tab* n. ftg* zj. Gualtiiri, tab. ir. fig. Plancrhis. 
£• £• Faun Smc. No. 2176. 123. Flat. 

Sn. with a very fiat brown fiiell, (lightly carinated on the outfide 4 
the aperture oblique. 

Inhabits ponds. 

Tab. Ixxxiii. fig. 121. 

O ^ Lin., 


Vortix. lin. Sjfi. 1243. JVtf. 66j; Lift. Ji^U tat. iLJig. 28. Gudbiiri. uh. ir.fig. G. G. 

i24«WHat. Lsjf. Cwcb. tai. 138. >(f. 43. /4«r« fjMr. ^SK• 2178. 

Sn. with a very flat thin (heU, and fct fmall fpires. The outmoft 

Found with the former. 

Tai. Ixxxiii. J!g. 1 24. 

Nana. Sn. with four fpires 5 the cxtftrior very large. Thick in propor- 

i25.DwAtF. jj^^ ^^ .^^ diameter. Umbilicated. 

Whether a young, or a rariety of the foUowing ? 
T'tf^. Ixxxiii. fig. 125. 

C9mta. Lin. Sjjf. 1243. No. 67 1. £^. uAr//« /tf^. ii. Jig. 26. Gtmburi. tab* !▼. D. D« 

I26tH0RNY. Foarv. SuiC. 2179. 

Sn. with four rounded fpires. Umbilicated 5 of a horny appear- 

Found in dull deep rivers> and in ponds. The largeft of the 
Britijh deprcflcd fpecies. 

Tab. Ixxxiii. 

** Ventricoic. 

Rufi/cens. Cochlea dilute rufefcens, auc fabalbida, finu ad ambilicom exiguo, circinato. 
127. Mot- Lift, Jmgl. tab. lu fig' 12« 


Sn. with four fpires, and minutely umbilicated ; the exterior fpire 
fub-carinatcd. Of a pale browniQi red mottled with white. . 


Class VI. S H E L L & 117 

Inhabits woods. 
TaiAxxxv. fig' 12^^ 

Pomati* Dio/e^r. lib, ii« c. 9. /. 309. Ge/ner* Aq, 6$ 5. Pomatia* 

Ug. Syft, 1244. Ak 677. Lifi. Jifgl^ ^« ii* fig* !• Fmh^ &uu% No* 2183. 128. Exo> 


Sn. with five fpires moft remarkably ventricofe. Slightly umhi- 
licated. Fafciatcd .with a lighter aad deeper brown. 

Inhabits the woods of the fouthern counties of England. 

A naturalized fpecies, introduced, as is faid, by Sir Kenelm 
Digby ; whether for n>edicftl purpofes, or as a food, is uncertain. 
Tradition fays, that to cure his beloved wife of a decay was the 

They are quite confined to our fouthern counties. An attempt 
was made to bring them into Noribamptonjbire *, but they would 
not live there. 

' Thefe are ufed as a food in feveral parts of Europi during 
Lenti and are prcfervcd in an EfcargatoirCj or a large place 
boarded in, with the floor covered half a foot deep with herbs, 
in which the fnails neftle and fatten f . They were alfo a favorite 
dift) with the Romans^ who had their Cochkariay^L nmkry fimilar to 
the above. Fulvius Hirpinus J was the firft inventor of this luxury, 
a little before the civil wars between Cefar and Pompey. The fitails 
were fed with bran, and foddcn wine. If we could credit Varro |l, 
they grew fo large, that the fhells of fome would hold ten quarts ! 
People need not admire the temperance of the fiipper of the younger 
Pliny §, which confided of only a lettuce apiece, three snails, two 

• Morton^ 415. f A(idifonUTraviUt 272. % Fliny^ lib.X' r*56» 

II Di Ri Rujiica, lib. iii. r. 14. § Epill. lib. i. Efift. xv. 

6 cggs^. 

ii« SHELLS. Class VI 


eggs, a barley cake, fweet wine, and fnow ; in cafe his fnails bore 
any proportion in fize to thofe of Hirpinus. 

Its name is derived not from any thing relating to an orchard, 
but from llwuAa, an operculum^ it having a very ftrong one. Tliis 
feems tobe the fpeciesdefcribed by P//>gr, lib.viii. c. 39, which 
he fays was fcarce \ that it covered icfelf with the opercle) and 
lodged under ground ; and that they were at firft found only 
' about the maritime AlpSy and more lately near Viliira, 

Tab. Ixxaciv. fig. 128. 

Hmrtn/iu Coch!ea vulgaris major pulla macolata et fafciata hortenfis. Lift* Angl. tab. ii. 
W9. Gar. fi^, 2. Guaitieri, ub. i. /^. C. 

J>JM« Heluc lacorum. Zin. Sjfi. 1247. iVa. 692. Lifi. dncb. tab. 49. fig. 47. The 

common garden fnail. 

Sn, in form like the laft, but lefler, and not umbilicated and 
clouded, or mottled with browns. 

Thefe are often ufed with fuccefs in confumptive cafes. 

tab. Ixxxiv. fig. 129. 

driuftoruM. Lin, Sjft. 124J. No. 680. Lifi, Angl tab. xufig. 4. faun. Stuc. No.ziSi^. 
130. Shrub* 

Si^. with a gloify (hell, brown, marked with a fingle black fpiral 
fafcia : the rim of the aperture refle£ls a little. Sub-umbilicated, 
Varies with deeper and lighter colors. 

Inhabits woods. 

Tab. Ixxxv.fig. 130. 




Lin. Syft, 1247. No. 691. Gumbiiri^ tat. ufg, P. lifi. Concb, tab. 57. Lift. Ntm^ra/is. 


Sk. with a glofly (hell ; very thin and pellucid. The aperture 
awry. Varies infinitely : often yellow, or light green, or red faf- 
ciated with black or white, along the fpires. Often quite plain. 
Inhabits woods and gardens. 

Lin. Sjft» 1247. No. 690. £//• jfngl. tal* iu/g* 18. Coacb. tab* mS. fg. 26. Fivfpara^ 
Faun. Smc* No. ti%y I32. Vivi- 


Sn. with fix ventricofe fpires, unibilicated. The aperture almoft 
round. Color brown, with dufky fpiral fafci^e. 

Inhabits ftagnant waters, and femi-ftagnant rivers. 

^ih. Ixxxiv. j%. 132. 

£m. Sjft. 124$« No^ 681. Gnabiiri. tab. iii.^^. L.^ . Zonaria. 

I33« Zon- 

Sn. with five fpires ; the firflL very ventricofe.^ Slightly umbili- 

cated. Fafciated fpirally with narrow ftripes of white, dufky, and 


Inhabits dry banks. 

Variety ? of the former. A (hell of a plain color, with the 
apex a little more projecting. Fig. 133. A. 




Pilluctda. Cbclilea terreftris otebiiiemta pellodda flavefceiis. Gualimi% ut. ii. J^. G. 
134. Pel- 


Sn, a very thin pellucid flicll, of a yellowilb-grecn color. Very 
brittle. With four fpires, the firft very tumid. 
Found by me only once; in Sbropjhire. 

•*• Of a taper Form. 

OMonaf tin. Sjjt. 1 248. N§. 6g8« GtuJtim. Uii. 6. Jig. B. ? 
13$. Eight* 


Sk. with eight fpires <Jf a brown color. My fpccimcn ifas muti- 

Inhabits ponds. 

Xah. haoLYuJig. 135. 

••*• Ovated, iiqperforated. 

Staznalis. ^'** ^jfi* '*49* ^'* 703. Lift. AngU tab. ii. fig* at. C$iub* tab. 1x3./^. 21. 
136. Laxb. ^*««' ^*''* ^•^ **8^* 

Sn. with fix fpires 5 the firft very large and ventricofe, and the laft 
quite pointed. Very brittle. Length two inches one eighth. ^ 

Inhabits ftill waters \ is, with others of the kind, the food of 


Class VI. S H ELL S. . iii 

In younger fpecimcns is a duplicature of the fliell, from the 
aperture fpreading along the firft fpire ; as in^. A, In old fhells 
it vaniflies. 

B. Aoother, which I fufpedk to be alfo a variety 2 Icffcr and 
fomewhat ftronger. Perhaps the Helix lineofa of Unn^eus^ Nd. 
706. Liji. Angl tab. ii. No. 22. . 

T'tf^. Ixxxvi. jJ^. 136. A. B. 


Z//r. Syft. 1249- -^^* 7^5* ^ift* ^^i^* tab.iufg. 24. Conch* ui, 123. /g» 23. Putris 
Faun. Suec. No. 2189. ^ . 137. Mud* 

Sn. with the firft fpire vaftly large and tumid. The two others 
very fmall. 

Inhabits ponds, &c. 

Tab. Ixxxvi. ^g. 137. 

Lin, Sjft. 1 2 JO. No. 708. Lift. AngU tah* iu fg» 23. Conch, tab. 123. fig. it. JaHcularia. 
Faun. Suic. No. 2192. 138. Ear, 

Sn. with a very ventricofe firft fpire, fub-umbilicated. The laft 
forms a minute apex. Color yellow. Very brittle. 

Inhabits ponds. 

Tab. Ixxxvi. /^- 138. 

Lin. Syft. I2J0. No. 709. L^vigatum ? 

139. Smooth- 

Sn. with only two fpires : the firft very ventricofe; the other very 
minute, and placed laterally. Of a pale-red color. Pellucid. 

R Inhabits 

,4j S H E L X S, CtAisTI. 

Inhabits ponds. 
Tak. Ixxxvi. Jig. 139* 

^iMtoiMlaia. tin. Sj/.it^. 1(0.707' lift. jMiL uA. H. /g. 19* C^ nt.fg.zt. 
140. Olivb. Faun. Sue. Nu zigi. 

Sn. of an oval fub-conic form, with five fpircs. Clouded with 
brown. , 

Inhabits ponds, 

Tah. Ixxxvi. fig. 140. 

NEWTE XXV. Its animal a Slug. 

Shell gibbous, flattifc at bbttom. 
Aperture femi-orbicular. 

141. Livid. 

N. with five fpires, umbilicated. Of a livid color. The fpires 
marked with (hort brown ftripcs ; but it varies b colors, 
^ah. lxxxvii.J%. I4i« 

9luviMili4. lin. Sjft. ias3- *• 7*3- ^l^- ^i'- tai. il/g. 20. Cmcb. tat. 141- A- 38- 
142* RivBi. -F«w- ^''- -^^^ **94» 

N. with only two fpires. Brittle, duflcy, marked with white ipots.. 
Not half the fize of a pea. 
Inhabits ftill rivers and ftanding waters* 
iTtf*. Ixxxvii. /^. I4Z. 


Class VI. S H E L L S^ 


Lin. Sjjf. 1453. JWf. 725. Xj^. Ji»^/. tal. iii. /jf. Il, IS> I J. C^nci. tah. 607. LittofMs. 
fg. 39, &c. F««f. 5«rf. ATa. «i9S. i43.STRAHi 

N. with a thick (hell, with four fpires. Generally of a fine yellow. 
Varies greatly into other oolort. 

Large as a horfe-bean. 

Common at the lea rocks. 

Tab. Ixxxvii. Jig. 143. 

XXVI; Its animal a Slug.' tUUOnSm 

Shell of the fhape of a human ear, with a row of orifices 

along the furface. 
The fpire near one end turned in. 

tin. Sjft. 1256. Lift. Cwcb. tdi. 611. Lift. Jngl. toB. uujlg. l6i TnhircnUtm 



H. with a rough (hell, the infide like modier*of*pearl. 

Inhabits the fea near Guemfey ; ahb frequently caft up on the 
fouthem ihores of Devon/hire. When living adheres to rocks. 

This was the Kurag ayfic^ the wild limpet, an^ 0«AXcirn«» Zr, the 
fea ear of AriftotU ♦. ' 

Tab. Ixxxviii. fig. 144. 


R a Oiv.iy. 

124 SHELLS. Class VL 

Div. IV. Univalve Shells. 
Without a regular %irc. 

PATELLA. XXVII. Its animal a Slug. 

^^^^^^* Conic ihcll, without fpires. 

Fufgata. Lin* Sjfi. 1258. Nc. 758. Lift. AngU tah* v. fig* 40; taun. Suec* Nq. iigg^. 

145. Com- 

P. with rough prominent /n>, and fliarply crcnatcd edges. Vertex 
pretty near the centre. The edges often in old fubjeds are almoft 

Tai. Ixxxix. ^^^^ 145. 

Diprtjfa. ^fi- Concb. tab* 538. fig. infi 

1 4.6. Flat. 

P. much deprefTed ; the vertex approximating nearly to one edge;. 
More oblong than the former. T'ah bcxxix. Jig. 146. 

Hungarica. £,.,^ Syfi. 1259. ^^' 76l- GualtUri. uh. ix.fig. yy. 
147. Bon- ^^ j:^ I ^o 


P. with a white acuminated ftriated fhel)» the top turning dbwir 
like a Phrygian bonnet.. 
Tab. xc. fig. 147. 

IP Patell* 

Class VI. S H E I* L S^ its 

Patella vertice ifitorto» ftG» GuMUkri. tat. ur. fig. io« lntwu% 


P. with an ekvated ihell^ flightly ftrtaced \ the vertex bending^ 
but not hooked » 

Inhabits Anglefea. Found on the lhores» 

Tab. xc.fig. 148. ^ 

Un. Syjt. 1260. JTo. 769^ Lg)f. JlngU tub. ii. fig^ 32* Conch, tat. 141. fig. 39* Lacuflris. 
Faun. Sate. No. 220Qr 149. La ice. 

P. with a (hell almoA membranaceous ; the top redined«» 
Inhabits frefh waters. 

tin. Syfi. 1260. No .770* Lift. Conch, tah. 3^43 • fig. 27» fillucida^ 



P. with a pellucid (hell, marked longitudinally with rows of rich 
blue fpots. The vertex placed near one edge. 

Inhabits the fea rocks of CornwalL 

Tab. xc. fig. 150- 

Patella laevis fafca.. Lift. Conclf. tab. 542. fig. z6^ Eit^it. 


P. with a fmooth and glofly (hell, fomewhat deprefied; the apex 

Found on the fhores near Bamff. 

Tab., xc. fig. 151. ^ 

126 SHELLS. Class VL 

Tifura.. Lin. Sjft. 1261. No. 778. X'/. CotKb. tst. S4}./f» «^* 

152. SSfiT,. 

P. with a white lhell» of an elevated form, vertex inclining 5 
elegantly (Iriated and reticulated. Has a remarkable flit in front. 

Inhabits the feas of the Weft of England. 

Tab. xc. ^g. 152. ♦ 

Grdteaf Lin. Sjft. 1262. No. 780. Lift. Cdaeb. tab, ^27. fig. '2* 

153, Stri«. 


P. with an oblong flielli perforated vertex, ftriated roughly to 
the edges. 

Inhabits the Weft of England. 

Tab. Ixxxix. fig. 153. 

This genus was' called by the Greeks Kmm^ and is mentioned 
by Arifiotle and Athenaus * \ who acquaint us, that it was ufed for 
the table ; and alfo inform us of its nature of adhering to rocks. 
Arifiophanes with much humour fpeaks of an old woman who 
ftuck as clofe to a young fellow as a Lepas to a rock. 

Linnaus has adopted the Latin name of Patella, a fort of di(h \ 
and has applied it, (as fome other modem writers have before) to 
this genus. 

* drifiou Hifi. An* Ub. iv. r. 4. Atben^nts^ lib* ilL /• 85. 


Claw VI. 

S • H 



XXyiil. Its animal a.TERBBELLA. 
A flender tubiform IhclU 


LtM. Sj(fi. 1263. iVtf* 786. Lift. Coucb. tub^ IM-fig* '^ fiom^ Smc* No. 2201. Entalis. 

154.. Com- 

O* with a {lender ihelU ^ little bending. Pervious* 
Length near an inch and a half. 
Inhabits mofl: of our feas. 
STtf*. xc./^. 154. 

XXIX. Its aninnal a Terebella. 

Tubular (hell adhering to other bodies. 


Lin. Sjft^ 1264. No. 794.. Fautu Stttc* No* 2204. 

S* with a IhcU fpiral or wreathed, like the cornu ammonis. 
Very fmallj adhering to fliclis, crujlacea and alga. 
Tab.xci.Jfg. 155. 

LJn. Sjifl. 1265. No* 795.. Faun. Smu. No. Z2o6. 

S. with a triangular (hell, irregularly twifted. 

Adheres to (in a. creeping form). Hones and other fubftances. 

155. Spiral. 

. 156. Anov- 




Intricafa, Lin, Sjjf, 1 265. No, 796. 

I57. CoM» 

S. with a flendcr (hell greatly entwined. 

Adheres to (hells, &c. mcft intricately twilled. 
Talf. xci, fg. 157. 

ConfartypU- If/i. <^. 1266. No, 799. ij/f, Ccncb* tah. 29. ^/Sjj-, D. /*!?««. ^tffr. No^ 
lata. 2205. 

158. TwiN- 

S. wi:h a (Irong, rugged, angulated (hell, entwined. 
Adheres to (hells, &c, 
^ab, xci. /^. I58* 

FermUttlarh. Lin. Sj/. 1267. No. 805. £/Zri Ci?rtf/. M*.. xxxviii./^. ?. 
'59* Worm* 

S. with a flender, incurvated, taper, and rounded (hell. 
According to Mr. Ellis, inhabits all our coafts. 

TEREDO. Its animal a Terebella. 

^^-^^'^*^- Shell (lender, bending. 

Navaliu Lin. Syjf, 1267. No, 807. Fauff, Suec. Ni?. 2087. 

160.. Ship. 

Juflly called by LhiVd^us calamitas navium. Was imported from 

the Indies. Penetrates into the ftoutell oak plank, and cfTcds their 


XXX. Its 


XXX. Its animal a Neheis. SJBELLJ. 

A tubular covering, fabricated with fand and broken fliclls, 
coherent by a glutinous cement. 

Liiu Sjft. 1268. No. 811. Bafltr/uh/ef. 1./. 80. tah. 9'fii*\* p^^j-^ 


S. with a fingle cafe formed of larger fragments of (hells, with 
little or no fand. 

Found near JVeymoutb^ lodged in the (hell of a bivalve. The 

animal is reprefented magnified in Tab. xxvi. marked A. A. ' 

Lin. Sffi^ 1268. No. 8ia* Ellis CoraL ub. xxxtL /. 90* ^, , 



S. with numerous tubes ^placed parallel ; with the orifices open, 
forming in the mafe the appearance of the furface of honey-combs: 
compofed chiefly of fand, with very minute fragments of fhelU« 
The tubes fometimes above three inches long. 

Found on the weftcrn coafts of Angl^ta\ near Cricctthy Caemar* 
vmjbire ; and near Tarmouib. It covers the rocks for a conQderi- 
ble fpace near low-water mark. 

Tdii.xciu^jr. i6t* 





Class VI. 

Tubiformis* Nereis cylindracea beigica. Pallai. Mi/c^ ZW./*zii« tal.vL.fii.i. 

163. TuBEf 

S. with a cafe of a caper firait form ; iQade up of minute pard^ 
cles of fand, moft elegantly put together. 

Its animal defcrtbed at No. 34. 

Common on all our fandy (bores. 
I'ah. xcii. fig. 163. 




Page 31. ■ Ftr Siponcnlus nod 


62. — — — Barnacle — — 


96, in the margin, — 76 '■'; — — 


In the Syftematic Index, — Plate LXXXXIX. — — 


In the Plates. 

Plate XXV. — N» 41. , 

Plate XXVk 

LIX. — N»8o. 



N D EX. 

A CORN-ihcIl, 
^^ Actinia, 

• • 



Arborcfccnt Sea Star, 

• • 












" * 



« • • 



Blubber, isea, 

• a 


« ^ 




Carbium, . - 


Ca/ar brings from Britain a 

ihield made of its pearb. 



S 2 












ijx INDEX. 


CUmh • - - - 80 

Cochlear ia^ -^ • •" II7 

CocKLB» - - • . * 76 

Concha Htimna^ - « - 85 

Conwaj river once noted for pearls, * - 68 

Crows, tkeir policy to get at the meat of the mnflel, - 97 

Cuttle-filh ink, - - - 46 

■ " ■ faufage * . - 47 
Cyprjba* - ■ • 99 

iXi/^/, a fort of Pbohst - - * 6j 

Dentalium, - • - 127 

Dew-worm, its manners, - - - 29 

Dipper^ - • . . iqq 

DoNAX, - . - • - 79 

DoRISt •^ • • 36 


Echinus, - - •56 

■ ■ eaten by the Roma$u, • • j^ 
£gg» Sea, vfVr Echinus. 

Efcargatoire' •- - * • 1^ 


Gellles, lea - - ■ d • ^^ 

Qtrardt his tale of the goofe bearing fiielli • . . 63 

GowaiB, - ^ - - .99 

!■■< I facred to Vtnus^ • - i*j^ 


Haq, » • * 33 

HaLIOTIS, • - "123 

HambUton Hooierj, a ffne muflel . . . ^^ 

Hermit Crab, its inftind, • • ' • |q 

Hiffsfnts, his art of fattening fnails^ - • H^ 

HoLOTHuaiAi • * #42 

3 Irijb 



Ifip pearls of large fize> 

Irt river, its pearls, 

JumnaU his aecoant of the ink of the ^«/m, 

' Britip oyftcrs. 


Kri»f, - g 

LsBCHBs, their nfes 

£1^11/ anatifira^ 

Lentulus^ his famons fupper, 



LoBSTBRs, their hiftory, 
■■ I I 'fear thnnder, 
' — vaftadiivity, 

— — - known to Arijtothy 
LoDgoyftcr, what, 
Lmcrim lake, its oyfters, 
Lungs, fea. 




• excites burning pain when handled, 
cured kibed heel^i 






61, 64 

• 63 










134 INDEX. 


Mejalintis, lofcs his life by a Leech, - « « 32 

MURBX, - m. ' , ,q5 

MuRicESy a dlih in £^«/ir/tf/'s fappert «• • * 5^ 

■ prcdudive of the parple dye, - • - 103 

MvA, ' - - . 55 

— a fpecies producing pearls, - - 68 

Mytilus. Mussel, • « • 94 

■ noxious to many conAitotions, - "" - 95 


Nacri, • - • 97 

Nereis, - * - ^ - ^g 

---—— illuminates the ocean, - - ,-^,y. 

Nerita, '« * • 122 

Nettle, Sea, - • .50 


O/pian, his account of the P/)mr0/i^Zii4r crab, " - 2 

I ' ■ — r- 5r/iV or Cuttle, - - 46 

Or^/a Strgius^ inventor of ftews for oyfters, - , . . 5g 

Oftna cruda^ - - ^ c8 

Oysters, - _ - . g- 

Briiijhy in great repute at Kom^ . . - 88 

— ~— Oyfter-beds, account of, - - - /^/^. 


Patella, . - 

Patina oftrearum^ a Roman dilh. 
Pearls, Britijh^ 

Pholas, penetrates wood and Hones, 

Piercer, ' • . . ^\\ 



- S« 
68, 97 




I N D E X, 




P%, the younger, his fuppcr, • . i,^ 

Purple dye,, the 9>r/tf«, . - 103 

the J?r///>^, how produced, • . /^,V/. 


-a food. 


» • •72 

Hutrnfinm, or RkUcrouj;^, its oyfter oelebrated by 7w#»w/, * S8 


• 120 

Saafage, the cuttlc-fiflr of the Gr«i/, . - 47 

Scallops, . ^ ^ ^ ' 

bow dreffed by the Gr«i/, - . ^iJ^ 

«*»cfhcll in which Tifwii/rofe from the fea» " - mj. 

• • worn by pilgrims, - ^ . ,.^y^ 


■■ /«^/«*, their vaft fize, • . - 45 

— How the Sffia efcapea danger, • * - 4.6 

Serpula, , ^ ^ 

Snail, - . ^^ 

Snails fattened for food. . ^ * ''^ 

SOLEN, , , ^ -117 

" • grateful to widows, - , . ^^ 

Xt/Kin^ . - 72 

Spbondyii, , . . *^ - 7* 

Star, Sea, . * • S^ 


— dcftruaive to oyflers, . . , . , . 

Strombos, . ", * 5^ 

fi • - 106 



136 INDEX. 


Tellina, • - • - 73 

Teredo, - - - - 12S 

Tillo, - - • - - 28 

Tooth-shell, • . - 137 

Top, - - * 109 

Trochu8> - - - - ihid. 

Turbo, - - - - iii 

V. U. 

ViNUs, fhcU, - -. - - 80 

VOLUTA, - • • • lOl 

Vrtha Solut4f9 - • - - 50 

Wampmnf what made ofj - - - • 80 

Whelk, - - . . . |-o« 

Worms, accoant of, from Linnausr • • • 25 

Wreath, • - - • • rti 

N. B. The Binders are re%oefied to place all the Plates at the End. 

WELSH NAMES of Reptiles and Fishes, in 
Vol. IIL BRITISH ZOOLOGY, with fomc 
Additions thereto, by RICHARD MORRIS, Esq^ 


LLyflant gWyllt* 
Llyffant mawr. 
Genaa goeg gennog* 
For naredigy tiod nadreddlg. 
For An, read dda. 
Neidr Aberdeen. 
F&r TnVngrwn, nod TvNytk^ 

— • trwynfkzn* 
21. — — penbwK 
23. For aden, rood adain. 

For Llamhydydd, read Llam* 

For bendol, r^^^beAdoU. 
Llamprai'r Uaid. 
Moreath atw. 
Ceffyl Gwyn. * 
Moreath ffreioig. 
■ ■■ gynfFon gwialen.. 









For Swithbyfg, read Swrth- 
38. For Cefn» read lefn. 
40. For Pcgod, Picewd, read Pi- 
gog, Piccwd. 







/*wgwin, rWgwyn. 

^(f/r Mofgi mawr. 

Morgi Ueiaf. 

Corgi mdr. 

Morgi mawr* 

For Iftwrfion, read Yftwrfion* 

. ' ■>» byrr. 

— crothog* 

— leiaf. 

6o« Pibellbyfg hin 

6 1 . • *■ byrr. 

64. /*tfr Llyfowen, read Lyfbweib 

Morddraig emmog. 





78. For chwedyn, r#^ chwitlyil« 

82. — ^ ffbrchogfarf 

83* ■■ « lleiaf. 

86. For Llefen^ Llefenan, rW 
Llofeiii Llofenen*. 

87. Codfyn farf ceirffbrcb. 
38, ■ ■ ■ — > pumfForch^ 
90. Llyfoafeddbyfg cribog. 

T 92. Clei- 




92. Cleirach gwymmon. 

i68. For Crodiel, read Crothtll. 

93. Gwrachen fair. 

173. /"i^r Golenbyfg, read GohU" 

95. Craigbyfgda. 


177. For Crothel; read CrothelL 

99. Sarph y mor. 

178. Eurbyig. ' 

1 0.1. Brenhinbyrg. 

179. Morfalwcft ddeafann. 

104. For Mdu, readiAu. 

io6. Lleden iraid3. 

io8. Llefh Dafod yr Hydd. 


III. Lleden arw fafnrwtb. 

225. ForRsiMyn^readKhsithlyn. 

113. For Brdm, readBrem. 

261. ForLlyn^Yi, read Llyntd&m 

114. Eurben danheddog« 

262. For Eyniotif read Einiou. 

118. Gwrach rengog. 

For Machyndeth, read Ma^ 


— — For Merionethffiire, read 

126. Pcfc y mdr. 


127. Y Ganvbcrc. * 

263. ForLlynallet, readUynaded. 

268. For Llynbeiris, read liyn- 

133. For Sopaen, read Yfpacn. 


I34« Macrell y meirch. 

276. For Gwiniad, readGwymad. 

r Ditto» and in running title 

1 39. For Pibyd, read Pibydi. 

III' < of foor pag^, and in^ 
"7^- t dex. 

141. Penhaiarn thefirog;. 

I4J* Dile Taliefin. 

345. For Cytbrawl, read €ytli- 

145. Britbyll y m&ri 

, raul. 

147. gwn- 

152. F^rGwiniad, iir4/Gwyiuad.. 

For Welch^ read' Wclflk, 

1^6. Arumfa^rfg* 

' throughout. ^ 

159. Ehcdbyfg. 

White Bait, not in Cata^ 

167. For Ifgrcttcn, read yfgrct- 

logiue» Yr Abwyd Gwyn«r 





.^j .n. 









PI v. 







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PI .XV. 







A 8. 


aifisci . \to. 




















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a. n. 


5 V..1. 

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